Demo API

{{Short description|Founding father of the People's Republic of Bangladesh}} {{Pp-semi-indef}} {{Pp-move|small=no}} {{Redirect-multi|2|Bangabandhu|Mujibur Rahman}} {{Use dmy dates|date=January 2023}} {{Use Bangladeshi English|date=January 2023}} {{Infobox officeholder | name = Sheikh Mujibur Rahman | image = Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.jpg | caption = Portrait, {{circa|1950}} | imagesize = | office = [[President of Bangladesh]] | primeminister = [[Tajuddin Ahmed]] | term_start = 17 April 1971 | term_end = 12 January 1972 | predecessor = ''Position established'' | successor = [[Abu Sayeed Chowdhury]] | primeminister1 = [[Muhammad Mansur Ali]] | term_start1 = 25 January 1975 | term_end1 = 15 August 1975 | predecessor1 = [[Mohammad Mohammadullah]] | successor1 = [[Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad]] (''Usurper''){{efn|In ''[[Bangladesh Italian Marble Works Ltd. v. Government of Bangladesh]]'', the [[Appellate Division, Supreme Court of Bangladesh|Supreme Court]] ruled that Mostaq's accession to the Presidency was illegal as it violated the line of succession and occurred after a military coup. Therefore, it was declared that Mostaq was a usurper and all Ordinances rendered by him under martial law were null and void of any legal effect.{{cite news |url=https://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2020/08/16/inside-the-indemnity-ordinance-that-protected-the-killers-of-bangabandhu |title=Inside the Indemnity Ordinance that protected the killers of Bangabandhu |date=16 August 2020 |access-date=15 June 2022 |work=Bdnews24.com |last=Hasan Pias |first=Mehedi}}{{cite news |url=https://archive.thedailystar.net/images/5thammendment.pdf |title=Civil Petition for Leave to Appeal Nos. 1044 & 1045 OF 2009 |date=2 February 2010 |access-date=15 June 2022 |work=The Daily Star}}{{cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-152188 |title=5th amendment verdict paves way for justice |date=25 August 2010 |access-date=15 June 2022 |work=The Daily Star |last=Ali Manik |first=Julfikar}}}} | office3 = [[Prime Minister of Bangladesh]] | president3 = {{Plainlist| * [[Abu Sayeed Chowdhury]] * Mohammad Mohammadullah }} | term_start3 = 12 January 1972 | term_end3 = 24 January 1975 | predecessor3 = [[Tajuddin Ahmad]] | successor3 = Muhammad Mansur Ali | office2 = [[Leader of the House (Bangladesh)|Leader of the House]] | termend2 = 25 January 1975 | termstart2 = 12 January 1972 | predecessor2 = ''Position established'' | successor2 = Muhammad Mansur Ali | office4 = [[Awami League#President and general secretary of the AL, 1949–present|President of Awami League]] | termstart4 = 25 January 1966 | termend4 = 18 January 1974 | 1blankname4 = General Secretary | 1namedata4 = {{ubl|Tajuddin Ahmad|[[Zillur Rahman]]}} | predecessor4 = [[Abdur Rashid Tarkabagish]] | successor4 = [[Abul Hasnat Muhammad Qamaruzzaman|A. H. M Qamaruzzaman]] | office6 = Other Roles | subterm7 = 1946–1948 | suboffice7 = [[Bengal Provincial Muslim League|Councillor of Bengal Provincial Muslim League]] | subterm8 = 1953–1966 | suboffice8 = [[Awami League (Pakistan)|General Secretary of Awami League]] | subterm9 = 1954 | suboffice9 = [[Government of East Pakistan|Agriculture Minister of East Bengal]] | subterm10 = 1954–1958 | suboffice10 = [[East Pakistan Provincial Assembly|Member of East Pakistan Provincial Assembly]] | subterm11 = 1955–1958 | suboffice11 = [[List of members of the 2nd National Assembly of Pakistan|Member of the National Assembly of Pakistan]] | subterm12 = 1956–1957 | suboffice12 = [[Government of East Pakistan|Industries Minister of East Pakistan]] | birth_date = {{Birth date|df=yes|1920|3|17}} | birth_place = [[Tungipara Upazila|Tungipara]], Bengal Presidency, British India | death_date = {{Death date and age|df=yes|1975|8|15|1920|3|17}} | death_place = [[Dacca]], Bangladesh | death_cause = [[Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman|Assassination]] | residence = [[Bangabandhu Memorial Museum|Dhanmondi, Dhaka]] | occupation = {{Flatlist| * Insurance executive * politician * statesman }} | nationality = {{Plainlist| * [[British subject]] (1920–1947) * Pakistan (1947–1971) * Bangladesh (1971–1975) }} | party = [[Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League]] (1975) | otherparty = {{Plainlist| * [[All-India Muslim League]] (1937–1947) * [[Muslim League (Pakistan)|Muslim League]] (1947–1949) * [[Awami League (Pakistan)|Awami League]] (1949–1971) * [[Bangladesh Awami League]] (1971–1975) }} | spouse = [[Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib|Begum Fazilatunnesa]] | children = {{Flatlist| * [[Sheikh Hasina|Hasina]] * [[Sheikh Kamal|Kamal]] * [[Sheikh Jamal|Jamal]] * [[Sheikh Rehana|Rehana]] * [[Sheikh Russel|Russel]] }} | mother = [[Sayera Khatun|Sheikh Sayera Khatun]] | father = [[Sheikh Lutfar Rahman]] | relatives = [[Tungipara Sheikh family]] | alma_mater = {{Plainlist| * [[Maulana Azad College|Islamia College, Calcutta]] ([[Bachelor of Arts|BA]]) * [[University of Dhaka]]{{efn|In 1949 while a second-year student studying law, Bangabandhu was expelled from the University of Dhaka by the Executive Council on the grounds of "instigating" a movement among the employees of the University to secure better pay and allowances. The expulsion was symbolically rescinded 61 years later in 2010 by the Executive Council.{{cite news |url=https://archive.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2021/08/13/bangabandhu-s-grand-return-to-du-was-ruined-by-assassination |title=Bangabandhu's grand return to DU was ruined by assassination |date=14 August 2021 |access-date=28 July 2022 |work=Dhaka Tribune |last=Asif Shawon |first=Ali}}}} }} | signature = Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Sign.svg | resting_place = [[Mausoleum of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman]] | nickname = Khoka | honorific_prefix = ''[[Father of the Nation]]
Bangabandhu'' | awards = [[World Peace Council prizes|Joliot-Curie Medal of Peace]]
[[File:Independence Day Award Ribbon (Bangladesh).svg|30px]] [[Independence Award]]
[[Gandhi Peace Prize]]
[[SAARC Literary Award]] | native_name = {{nobold|শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান}} | native_name_lang = bn }} '''Sheikh Mujibur Rahman'''{{efn|{{lang-bn|শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান|Śekh Mujibur Rôhômān}} {{IPA-bn|ˈʃeːkʰ mudʒɪbur ˈɾɔɦoman|}}}} (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), popularly known by the [[Prefix|honorific prefix]] '''Bangabandhu'''{{efn|{{lang-bn|বঙ্গবন্ধু|Bôṅgôbôndhu}} {{IPA-bn|ˈbɔŋgobondʱu|}}}} ({{lit|Friend of [[Bengal]]}}) was a Bangladeshi politician, revolutionary, statesman, activist and [[diarist]]. As a politician, Mujib had held continuous positions as [[President of Bangladesh|president]] or [[Prime Minister of Bangladesh|prime minister]] from April 1971 until [[Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman|his assassination]] in August 1975: as president from 1971 to 1972 and briefly from 1975 until his death, and as prime minister from 1972 to 1975.{{cite encyclopedia |url=https://www.britannica.com/biography/Mujibur-Rahman |title=Mujibur Rahman |encyclopedia=Britannica|date=11 August 2023 }}{{cite news |title=Who is Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, whose birth centenary Bangladesh is observing today |url=https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-who-is-sheikh-mujibur-rahman-whose-birth-centenary-bangladesh-is-observing-6317512/ |work=The Indian Express |access-date=28 May 2020 |ref=17 March is the birth anniversary of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920–1975), the founding leader of Bangladesh and the country's first Prime Minister. He is referred to as Sheikh Mujib or simply Mujib, the title ‘Bangabandhu’ meaning ‘friend of Bengal’. |language=en |date=17 March 2020}} Mujib successfully led the Bangladeshi independence movement and restored the Bengali sovereignty after over two centuries following the [[Battle of Plassey]] in 1757, for which he is honoured as the '[[Father of the Nation]]' in Bangladesh.{{cite web | url=https://www.daily-sun.com/printversion/details/706268/Immortal-Bangabandhu | title=Immortal Bangabandhu | Daily Sun | | date=August 2023 }} In 2011, the [[Amendments to the Constitution of Bangladesh|fifteenth constitutional amendment]] in Bangladesh referred to Sheikh Mujib as the Father of the Nation who [[Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence|declared independence]]; these references were enshrined in the fifth, sixth, and seventh schedules of the constitution.{{cite web |url=http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/upload/act/2022-04-18-13-27-54-Scheudle__367.pdf |title=First Schedule |website=Laws of Bangladesh}} His Bengali nationalist ideology, socio-political theories, and political doctrines are sometimes called [[Mujibism]]. Mujib emerged as a student activist in the [[Bengal Presidency|province of Bengal]] during the final years of the [[British Raj]]. He was a member of the [[All India Muslim League]]. In 1949, Mujib was part of a liberal, secular and leftwing faction which later became the [[Awami League]]. In the 1950s, Mujib was elected to Pakistan's parliament where he defended the rights of [[East Bengal]]; wore suits and bowties; and was described as urbane and charming. By the 1960s, Mujib was transformed into the nationalist leader of [[East Pakistan]], with his trademark [[Mujib coat]] and forceful oratory. He became popular for opposing political, ethnic and institutional discrimination; leading the [[Six point movement|6-point autonomy movement]]; and challenging the regime of Field Marshal [[Muhammad Ayub Khan|Ayub Khan]]. In 1970, Mujib led the Awami League to win Pakistan's first [[1970 Pakistani general election|general election]]. When the military junta refused to transfer power, he gave the [[7 March Speech of Bangabandhu|7th March speech]] and announced an independence movement. During the [[Bangladesh Liberation War]] in 1971, Mujib declared Bangladesh's independence. Bengali nationalists declared Mujib as the head of the provisional Bangladeshi government while he was confined in a jail in [[West Pakistan]]. He returned to Bangladesh in January 1972 as a hero. A populist of the 20th century, Sheikh Mujib was one of the most charismatic leaders of the [[Third World]] in the early 1970s. Mujib succeeded in normalizing diplomatic ties with most of the world, with a policy of friendship to all and malice to none. He signed a [[Indo-Bangla Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Peace|friendship treaty]] with India, joined the [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]], [[Non-Aligned Movement|NAM]] and the [[Organization of Islamic Cooperation|OIC]], opposed [[apartheid]] and dispatched an army medical unit during the [[1973 Arab-Israeli War]]. Mujib's legacies include the secularist [[Constitution of Bangladesh]] and the transformation of East Pakistan's state apparatus, bureaucracy, armed forces, and judiciary into an independent Bangladeshi state. He gave the first Bengali speech to the UN General Assembly in 1974. Mujib's five-year regime was also the only [[socialist]] period in Bangladesh's history. In 1975, Mujib installed a one party state which lasted for seven months until his assassination. Mujib's legacy remains divisive among Bangladeshis due to his economic mismanagement, the [[Bangladesh famine of 1974]], human rights violations, and authoritarianism. The Awami League has been accused of promoting a [[personality cult]] around Mujib. But most Bangladeshis credit Mujib for leading the country to independence in 1971. In a 2004 BBC opinion poll, Mujib was voted as the ''[[Greatest Bengali of all time]]'' and ranked first on the list followed by Asia's first Nobel laureate [[Rabindranath Tagore]] (2nd) and Bangladeshi national poet [[Kazi Nazrul Islam]] (3rd).{{Cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3623345.stm |title=Listeners name 'greatest Bengali' |date=14 April 2004 |access-date=16 April 2018 |publisher=BBC }}
{{Cite news |url=http://www.thehindu.com/2004/04/17/stories/2004041703001700.htm |title=International : Mujib, Tagore, Bose among 'greatest Bengalis of all time' |date=17 April 2004 |last1=Habib |newspaper=The Hindu |first1=Haroon }}
{{cite news |url=http://archive.thedailystar.net/2004/04/16/d4041601066.htm |title=Bangabandhu judged greatest Bangali of all time |work=The Daily Star |date=16 April 2004 |access-date=9 November 2018 |archive-date=25 December 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181225011711/http://archive.thedailystar.net/2004/04/16/d4041601066.htm |url-status=dead }}
Mujib's 7 March speech in 1971 is recognized by [[UNESCO]] for its historic value, and enshrined in the [[Memory of the World Register – Asia and the Pacific]].{{Cite news |date=31 October 2017 |title=Unesco recognises Bangabandhu's 7th March speech |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/politics/unesco-recognises-bangabandhu-sheikh-mujibur-rahman-7th-march-speech-memory-of-the-world-1484356 |access-date=15 December 2022 |work=The Daily Star |language=en}} His diaries and travelogues were published many years after his death and have been translated into several languages. ==Early life and activism== [[File:Residence of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman front view.jpg|thumb|left|Mujib's birthplace in Tungipara village, [[Gopalganj District, Bangladesh|Gopalganj]]]] [[File:Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in Dhaka Wanderers jersey in 1940.jpg|left|thumb|Mujib with a [[trophy]] after winning a football match in 1940]] Mujib was born in 1920 into the [[Bengali Muslims|Bengali Muslim]] aristocratic [[Sheikhs of Bengal|Sheikh family]] of the village of [[Tungipara Upazila|Tungipara]] in [[Gopalganj District, Bangladesh|Gopalganj sub-division]] of [[Faridpur district]] in the [[Bengal Presidency|province of Bengal]] in [[British India]].{{cite book |last=Harun-or- Rashid |year=2012 |chapter=Rahman, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur |chapter-url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Rahman,_Bangabandhu_Sheikh_Mujibur |editor1-last=Sirajul Islam |editor1-link=Sirajul Islam |editor2-last=Jamal |editor2-first=Ahmed A. |title=Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh |edition=Second |publisher=Asiatic Society of Bangladesh}}{{Cite news |title=Oshomapto Atmojiboni by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman |url=https://www.daily-sun.com/post/541917/Oshomapto-Atmojiboni-by-Sheikh-Mujibur-Rahman |access-date=2023-05-04 |work=Daily Sun |language=en}} His father [[Sheikh Lutfur Rahman]] was a ''[[sheristadar]]'' (law clerk) in the courthouse of Gopalganj; Mujib's mother [[Sayera Khatun|Sheikh Sayera Khatun]] was a housewife. Mujib's father [[Sheikh Lutfar Rahman|Sheikh Lutfur Rahman]] was a ''[[Taluqdar]]'' in [[Tungipara Upazila|Tungipara]], owning landed property, around 100 ''[[Bigha]]s'' of cultivable land.{{Cite book |last=Hasina |first=Sheikh |url={{GBurl|id=LmjIDwAAQBAJ|p=169|dq=secret documents of intelligence branch on father of the nation landed property taluqdar|q=secret documents of intelligence branch on father of the nation landed property taluqdar}} |title=Secret Documents of Intelligence Branch on Father of The Nation, Bangladesh: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman: Volume I (1948–1950) |date=2020 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-000-03311-3 |language=en}} His clan's ancestors were [[Zamindars of Bengal|''Zamindars'']] of [[Faridpur District|Faridpur Mahakumar]], however due to successive turns in the family fortune over generations had turned them middle class.{{Cite web |title=Barrister Sheikh Fazle Noor Taposh |url=https://www.barristersheikhtaposh.info/fazlulmoni.php |access-date=2023-05-04 |website=www.barristersheikhtaposh.info}}{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=}} The [[Sheikh–Wazed family|Sheikh clan of Tungipara]] were of [[Iraqi Arabs|Iraqi Arab]] descent, being descended from Sheikh Abdul Awal Darwish of Baghdad, who had come to preach [[Islam]] in the [[Bengal Subah|Mughal era]].{{Cite book |last=Kalam |first=Abul |url={{GBurl|id=BvCaEAAAQBAJ|dq=sheikh mujib family iraqi descent|p=84}} |title=Diplomacy and The Independence of Bangladesh: Portrayal of Mujib's Statesmanship |date=2022 |publisher=World Scientific |isbn=978-981-12-5554-0 |language=en}} His lineage is; Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, son of Sheikh Lutfar Rahman son of, Sheikh Abdul Hamid, son of Sheikh Mohammad Zakir, son of Sheikh Ekramullah, son of Sheikh Borhanuddin, son of Sheikh Jan Mahmud, son of Sheikh Zahiruddin, son of Sheikh Abdul Awal Darwish.{{Cite web |title=Barrister Sheikh Fazle Noor Taposh |url=https://www.barristersheikhtaposh.info/familytree.php |access-date=2023-05-04 |website=www.barristersheikhtaposh.info}} Mujib was the third child in a family of four daughters and two sons. His parents nicknamed him "Khoka".{{cite web |url=https://mujib100.gov.bd/pages/mujib/timeline.html |title=Mujib Timeline |access-date=18 December 2020}} In 1927, Mujib was enrolled in Gimadanga Primary School.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=xv}} In 1929, he entered the third grade of Gopalganj Public School. His parents transferred him to Madaripur Islamia High School after two years.{{sfn|Kādira|2004|p=440}} Mujib withdrew from school in 1934 to undergo eye surgery. He returned to formal education after 4 years owing to the severity of the surgery and slow recovery.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=9}} He began showing signs of political leadership around this time. At the Gopalganj Missionary School, Mujib's political passion was noticed by [[Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy]], who was visiting the area along with [[A. K. Fazlul Huq]]. Mujib passed out from the Gopalganj Missionary School in 1942. Mujib moved to [[Calcutta]] for higher education. At the time, Calcutta was the capital of British Bengal and the largest city in undivided India. He studied [[liberal arts]], including [[political science]], at the erstwhile [[Maulana Azad College|Islamia College]] of Calcutta and lived in [[Baker Hostel]].{{Cite news |url=https://indianexpress.com/photos/india-news/sheikh-mujibur-rehman-baker-hostel-room-7244807/ |title=Baker Hostel, Room No 24: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's days in Calcutta |work=The Indian Express |date=26 March 2021}}{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news/hasina-visits-baker-hostel |title=Hasina visits Baker Hostel |date=28 January 1999 |work=The Daily Star}} Islamia College was one of the leading educational institutions for the Muslims of Bengal. He obtained his [[bachelor's degree]] from the college in 1947. ===Muslim League politics (1943–1949)=== [[File:Gandhi Suhrawardy and Mujib.jpg|thumb|left|Mujib (standing right) with [[Mahatma Gandhi]] (seated center) and [[H. S. Suhrawardy]] (seated left) in [[Noakhali]], 1946]] During his time in Calcutta, Sheikh Mujib became involved in the politics of the [[Bengal Provincial Muslim League]], the [[All India Muslim Students Federation]], the [[Indian independence movement]] and the [[Pakistan movement]]. In 1943, he was elected as a councillor of the Muslim League. In 1944, he was elected as secretary of the Faridpur District Association, a Calcutta-based association of residents from Faridpur. In 1946, at the height of the Pakistan movement, Mujib was elected as General Secretary of the Islamia College Students Union in Calcutta.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=xvi}} His political mentor Suhrawardy led the center-left faction of the Muslim League. Suhrawardy was responsible for creating 36 trade unions in Bengal, including unions for sailors, railway workers, jute and cotton mills workers, rickshaw pullers, cart drivers and other working class groups.{{cite web |url=https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Suhrawardy,_Huseyn_Shaheed |title=Suhrawardy, Huseyn Shaheed |website=Banglapedia}} Mujib assisted Suhrawardy in these efforts and also worked to ensure protection for Muslim families during the violent days in the run up to partition. [[File:Sheikh Mujib and Begum Mujib circa 1955.jpg|thumb|upright|Sheikh Mujib and his wife]] After the [[partition of India]], Mujib was admitted into the Law Department of the [[University of Dhaka]]. The university was created in 1921 as a residential university modelled on Oxford and Cambridge where students would be affiliated with colleges; but its residential character was dramatically changed after partition and students became affiliated with departments.{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/was-dhaka-university-ever-the-oxford-of-the-east-57343 |title=Was Dhaka University ever the 'Oxford of the East'? |first=Taj |last=Hashmi |date=28 December 2014 |work=The Daily Star}}{{cite news |url=https://www.newagebd.net/article/156210/oxford-of-the-east-or-the-mecca-university |title='Oxford of the East' or the 'Mecca University'? |work=New Age}} Mujib founded the Muslim Students League on 4 January 1948 as the student wing of the Muslim League in [[East Bengal]]. This organisation later transformed into the [[Bangladesh Chhatra League]]. During the visit of Governor General [[Muhammad Ali Jinnah]] to [[Dhaka]], it was declared that [[Urdu]] will be the sole national language of Pakistan. This sparked the [[Bengali Language Movement]]. Mujib became embroiled in the language movement, as well as left-wing trade unionism among Bengali factions of the Muslim League. Bengali factions eventually split away and formed the [[Bangladesh Awami League|Awami Muslim League]] in 1949. These opposition political activities were targeted by the government and police. Mujib was arrested many times. In 1949, Mujib was expelled from Dhaka University on charges of inciting employees against the university. After 61 years, in 2010, the university withdrew its famously politically motivated expulsion order.{{cite news |last=Ahammed |first=Rakib |title=DU rights historic wrong |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-150811 |work=The Daily Star}}{{cite news |url=https://m.bdnews24.com/en/detail/bangladesh/248617 |title=Mujib's DU expulsion order withdrawn |work=bdnews24.com |access-date=30 December 2017 |archive-date=30 December 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171230172107/https://m.bdnews24.com/en/detail/bangladesh/248617 |url-status=dead}} == Awami League (1949–1971) == Mujib emerged as a major opposition figure in Pakistani politics between 1948 and 1971. He represented the Bengali grassroots. He had an uncanny ability to remember people by their first name regardless of whether they were political leaders, workers, or ordinary citizens. Mujib suffered repeated bouts of police detention due to his ability to instigate opposition protests against the Pakistani government. His movements were tracked by spies of the Pakistani government. He was accused of being a secessionist and an agent of India. East Pakistan's [[Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan)|Intelligence Branch]] compiled many secret reports on his movements and political activities. The secret documents have been declassified by the Bangladeshi government. The formerly classified reports have also been published.{{Cite web |url=https://www.routledge.com/Secret-Documents-of-Intelligence-Branch-on-Father-of-The-Nation-Bangladesh/Hasina/p/book/9780367467937 |title=Secret Documents of Intelligence Branch on Father of The Nation, Bangl}} ===Founding of the Awami League=== [[File:Front View of Rose Garden Place.jpg|thumb|upright|left|The Awami League was founded in this building at Rose Garden in Old Dhaka in 1949]] [[File:Sheikh Mujib cropped.jpg|thumb|Mujib in the early years of the Awami League]] The [[Awami League|All Pakistan Awami Muslim League]] was founded on 23 June 1949 at the [[Rose Garden Palace|Rose Garden]] mansion on K. M. Das Lane in [[Old Dhaka]].{{Cite web |url=https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php/Bangladesh_Awami_League |title=Bangladesh Awami League |website=Banglapedia}} Sheikh Mujib was elected as one of its joint secretaries. The term "Muslim" was later dropped from the party's nomenclature. The Awami League sought to represent both Muslims and Pakistan's religious minorities, including [[Bengali Hindus]] and [[Pakistani Christians]]. Hence, it dropped "Muslim" from its name to appeal to the minority votebanks. Suhrawardy joined the party within a few years and became its main leader. He relied on Sheikh Mujib to organise his political activities in East Bengal. Mujib became Suhrawardy's political protégé. Prior to partition, Suhrawardy mooted the idea of an independent [[United Bengal]]. But in Pakistan, Suhrawardy reportedly preferred to preserve the unity of Pakistan in a federal framework; while Mujib supported autonomy and was open to the idea of East Bengali independence. Mujib reportedly remarked that "[t]he Bengalis had initially failed to appreciate a leader of Mr. Suhrawardy's stature. By the time they learned to value him, they had run out of time".{{cite news |url=https://archive.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2019/12/06/an-unlikely-partnership-bangabandhu-and-suhrawardy |title=An unlikely partnership: Bangabandhu and Suhrawardy |work=Dhaka Tribune |date=6 December 2019}} At the federal level, the Awami League was led by Suhrawardy. At the provincial level, the League was led by Sheikh Mujib who was given a free rein over the party's activities by Suhrawardy. Mujib consolidated his control of the party. The Awami League veered away from the left-wing extremism of its founding president [[Maulana Bhashani]]. Under Suhrawardy and Mujib, the Awami League emerged as a centre-left party. ===Language Movement=== [[File:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1952.jpg|thumb|left|Mujib (centre) with Awami League leaders, 1952]] [[File:Rally on 21Feb1954 Abdul Hamid and Bangabandhu.jpg|thumb|[[Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani|Maulana Bhasani]] and Sheikh Mujib marching barefoot to pay tribute at [[Shaheed Minar, Dhaka|Shaheed Minar]] on 21st February 1954.]] The Awami League strongly backed the Bengali Language Movement. Bengalis argued that the [[Bengali language]] deserved to be a federal language on par with Urdu because Bengalis formed the largest ethnic group in Pakistan. The movement appealed to the [[Constituent Assembly of Pakistan]] to declare both Urdu and Bengali as national languages, in addition to English. During a conference in [[Fazlul Huq Muslim Hall]], Sheikh Mujib was instrumental in establishing the All-Party State Language Action Committee.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=xvii }} He was repeatedly arrested during the movement. When he was released from jail in 1948, he was greeted by a rally of the [[Rastrabhasa Sangram Parishad|State Language Struggle Committee]].{{cite journal |last=Oldenburg |first=Philip |date=August 1985 |title='A Place Insufficiently Imagined': Language, Belief, and the Pakistan Crisis of 1971 |journal=The Journal of Asian Studies |publisher=Association for Asian Studies |volume=44 |issue=4 |pages=711–733 |issn=0021-9118 |doi=10.2307/2056443 |jstor=2056443 |s2cid=145152852|doi-access=free }} Mujib announced a nationwide student strike on 17 March 1948.{{cite book |last=Al Helal |first=Bashir |year=2012 |chapter=Language Movement |chapter-url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Language_Movement |editor1-last=Sirajul Islam |editor1-link=Sirajul Islam |editor2-last=Jamal |editor2-first=Ahmed A. |title=Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh |edition=Second |publisher=Asiatic Society of Bangladesh}}{{cite news |last=Hossain |first=Zahid |date=21 February 2007 |title=Bangabandhu and Language Movement |url=https://archive.thedailystar.net/suppliments/2007/21stfeb/bangabandhu.htm |newspaper=The Daily Star}} In early January 1950, the Awami League held an anti-famine rally in Dhaka during the visit of Prime Minister [[Liaquat Ali Khan]]. Mujib was arrested for instigating the protests. On 26 January 1952, Pakistan's then Bengali Prime Minister [[Khawaja Nazimuddin]] reiterated that Urdu will be the only state language. Despite his imprisonment, Mujib played a key role in organising protests by issuing instructions from jail to students and protestors. He played a key role in declaring [[Language Movement Day|21 February 1952]] as a strike day. Mujib went on [[hunger strike]] from 14 February 1952 in the prelude to the strike day. His own hunger strike lasted 13 days. On 26 February, he was released from jail amid the public outrage over police killings of protestors on 21 February, including [[Abdus Salam (language martyr)|Salam]], [[Rafiq Uddin Ahmed|Rafiq]], [[Abul Barkat|Barkat]], and [[Abdul Jabbar (activist)|Jabbar]].{{cite news |title=Dhaka Medical College Hostel Prangone Chatro Shomabesher Upor Policer Guliborshon. Bishwabidyalayer Tinjon Chatroshoho Char Bekti Nihoto O Shotero Bekti Ahoto |language=bn |work=The Azad |date=22 February 1952}}{{cite book |last=Bishwas |first=Sukumar |date=2005 |title=Bangladesh Liberation War, Mujibnagar Government Documents, 1971 |url={{GBurl|id=U-1tAAAAMAAJ}} |publisher=Mawla Brothers |location=Dhaka |page=167 |isbn=978-9844104341}}{{cite news |url=http://dailyasianage.com/news/11509 |title=The lighthouse of Bengali mentality |author=Dr. Atiur Rahman |newspaper=The Asian Age |date=21 February 2016 |access-date=3 August 2017}}{{cite web |url=http://www.albd.org/bangabandhu/bangabandhu.htm |title=Political Profile of Bongobondhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman |website=Bangladesh Awami League |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060426174108/http://www.albd.org/bangabandhu/bangabandhu.htm |archive-date=26 April 2006 |access-date=6 July 2006}} ===United Front=== [[File:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1950.jpg|thumb|left|upright|100px|Mujib in 1950]] [[File:Mujib taking oath.jpg|thumb|Mujib being sworn in as a minister by East Bengali chief minister [[A. K. Fazlul Huq]] in 1954]] [[File:1954 east bengal cabinet.jpg|thumb|Mujib (standing second from left on bottom row) with A. K. Fazlul Huq in the United Front cabinet, 1954]] [[File:Sheikh Mujib in China.jpg|thumb|Mujib (center) in a [[bowtie]] in [[Peking]], 1956]] [[File:Sheikh Mujib at Fletcher School with others.jpg|thumb|Mujib (fourth from left) visiting the [[Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy]] in 1958 as part of the [[International Visitor Leadership Program]]]] [[File:Mujib in Harvard.jpg|thumb|Mujib (left) in [[Harvard]] with [[Munier Chowdhury]] (middle) and Md. Matiul Islam (right)]] The League teamed up with other parties like the [[Krishak Praja Party]] of [[A. K. Fazlul Huq]] to form the [[United Front (East Pakistan)|United Front]] coalition. During the [[East Bengali legislative election, 1954]], Mujib was elected to public office for the first time. He became a member of the [[East Bengal Legislative Assembly]]. This was the first election in East Bengal since the partition of India in 1947. The Awami League-led United Front secured a landslide victory of 223 seats in the 237 seats of the provincial assembly. Mujib himself won by a margin of 13,000 votes against his Muslim League rival Wahiduzzaman in Gopalganj.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=xviii }} A. K. Fazlul Huq became Chief Minister and inducted Mujib into his cabinet. Mujib's initial portfolios were agriculture and forestry.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=xviii}} After taking oath on 15 May 1954, Chief Minister Huq travelled with ministers to India and [[West Pakistan]]. The coalition government was dismissed on 30 May 1954. Mujib was arrested upon his return to Dhaka from [[Karachi]]. He was released on 23 December 1954. Governor's rule was imposed in East Bengal.{{cite journal |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/3023816 |jstor=3023816 |last1=Park |first1=Richard L. |last2=Wheeler |first2=Richard S. |title=East Bengal under Governor's Rule |journal=Far Eastern Survey |year=1954 |volume=23 |issue=9 |pages=129–134 |doi=10.2307/3023816}} The elected government was eventually restored in 1955. On 5 June 1955, Mujib was elected to a newly reconstituted second [[Constituent Assembly of Pakistan]]. The Awami League organised a huge public meeting at [[Paltan Maidan]] in Dhaka on 17 June 1955 which outlined 21 points demanding autonomy for Pakistan's provinces. Mujib was a forceful orator at the assembly in Karachi. He opposed the government's plan to rename East Bengal as [[East Pakistan]] as part of the [[One Unit]] scheme. On 25 August 1955, he delivered the following speech.
Sir [President of the Constituent Assembly], you will see that they want to use the phrase 'East Pakistan' instead of 'East Bengal'. We have demanded many times that you should use Bengal instead of Pakistan. The word Bengal has a history and tradition of its own. You can change it only after the people have been consulted. If you want to change, we have to go back to Bengal and ask them whether they are ready to accept it. So far as the question of one unit is concerned it can be incorporated in the constitution. Why do you want it to be taken up right now? What about the state language, Bengali? We are prepared to consider one unit with all these things. So, I appeal to my friends on the other side to allow the people to give their verdict in any way, in the form of referendum or in the form of plebiscite.''Debates of Pakistan Constituent Assembly and National Assembly (1947–1969)''
Mujib was often a vocal defender of [[human rights]]. Speaking on [[freedom of assembly]] and [[freedom of speech]], he told Pakistan's parliament the following on 29 November 1955:-
For whom are you going to frame the Constitution? Are you going to give freedom of speech, freedom of action to the people of Pakistan? When you do not have any other law under which you can arrest a person, you haul him under this so-called Public Safety Act. This is the blackest Act on the statute book of Pakistan. I do not know how long such an Act will continue. I want to warn you. Sir, that you must do justice to all people without fear or favour. If justice fails, equity fails, fair-play fails, then we will see how the matter is decided.{{cite web | url=https://www.thedailystar.net/supplements/national-mourning-day-2023/news/bangabandhus-voice-parliament-moments-inspiration-3394736 | title=Bangabandhu's Voice in Parliament: Moments of Inspiration | date=15 August 2023 }}
Mujib often called for increased recruitment and [[affirmative action]] in East Pakistan. Bengalis were under-represented in the civil and military services despite making up the largest ethnic group in the federation.{{cite journal | url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/40724611 | jstor=40724611 | title=Bangla Desh – an Outcome of Inequality and Imperialism | last1=Väyrynen | first1=Raimo | journal=Instant Research on Peace and Violence | date=20 August 1971 | volume=1 | issue=3 | pages=100–109 }} Mujib felt that Bengalis were being relegated to provincial jobs instead of federal jobs because most Bengalis could not afford to travel outside the province in spite of holding master's degrees and bachelor's degrees. A similar situation also prevailed under British rule when Bengali degree holders were employed mostly in the Bengal Civil Service instead of the pan-Indian civil service. In parliament, Mujib spoke about parity between East and West Pakistan on 4 February 1956 and said the following.
It was stated that at the time of partition there was only one I.C.S. officer in East Bengal and there were no Engineers. I say that Bengal with 16 per cent literacy has only such a meagre representation in the service. Sir, this fact must be realised that it costs an individual Rs. 200 to come from East Bengal to this place. If you recruit in East Bengal and give a job you will find a large number of people from East Bengal coming forward. There are such a large number of M.As. and B. As....... (Interruptions)....... Sir, my time has been spoiled.
Mujib later became provincial minister of commerce and industries in the cabinet of [[Ataur Rahman Khan]]. These portfolios allowed Mujib to consolidate his popularity among the working class. The Awami League's demand for Bengali as a federal language was successfully implemented in the [[Constitution of Pakistan of 1956|1956 constitution]], which declared Urdu, Bengali and English as national languages. East Bengal, however, was renamed East Pakistan. In 1957, Mujib visited the People's Republic of China. In 1958, he toured the United States as part of the [[State Department]]'s [[International Visitor Leadership Program]].{{cite news |url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2022/11/02/fulbright-providing-grants-to-bangladeshi-scholars |title=Fulbright providing grants to Bangladeshi scholars |work=Dhaka Tribune |date=2 November 2022}}{{cite news |url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/foreign-affairs/2022/03/17/us-salute-to-bangabandhus-legacy |title=US: Salute to Bangabandhu's legacy |work=Dhaka Tribune |date=17 March 2022}} Mujib resigned from the provincial cabinet to work full time for the Awami League as a party organiser.{{cite news |last=Aftabuddin Ahmed |first=Mir |date=26 March 2017 |title=From Sheikh Mujibur Rahman to our Bangabandhu |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/supplements/independence-day-special-2017/sheikh-mujibur-rahman-our-bangabandhu-1381261 |work=The Daily Star |access-date=3 August 2017}} ===Suhrawardy premiership=== [[File:Mujib with Shaheed Shabeb.jpg|thumb|left|Mujib and Suhrawardy]] [[File:Mujib Suhrawardy Zhou Enlai.jpg|thumb|Mujib, wearing a [[sherwani]], with Prime Minister Suhrawardy and Premier [[Zhou Enlai]] at Dhaka Stadium in 1957]] Between 1956 and 1957, Mujib's mentor Suhrawardy served as the 5th [[Prime Minister of Pakistan]]. Suhrawardy strengthened Pakistan's relations with the United States and China. Suhrawardy was a strong supporter of Pakistan's membership in [[SEATO]] and [[CENTO]].{{cite journal |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/41392808 |jstor=41392808 |title=The Foreign Policy of Pakistan 1947–1964 |last1=Ispahani |first1=M. A. H. |journal=Pakistan Horizon |year=1964 |volume=17 |issue=3 |pages=231–252}} Suhrawardy's pro-Western foreign policy caused Maulana Bhashani to break away from the Awami League to form the [[National Awami Party]], though Mujib remained loyal to Suhrawardy. Mujib joined the Alpha Insurance Company in 1960. He continued to work in the insurance industry for many years.{{cite news |url=https://today.thefinancialexpress.com.bd/special-issues/national-insurance-day-2020/bangabandhu-and-insurance-sector-development-1582983971 |title=Bangabandhu and insurance sector development |work=The Financial Express}}{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/news/make-people-aware-benefits-insurance-2053261 |title=Make people aware of benefits of insurance |first=Dhaka |last=Unb |date=2 March 2021 |work=The Daily Star}}{{Cite news |url=https://www.observerbd.com/news.php?id=294807 |title=Bangabandhu and 'Bima' |work=The Daily Observer |type=Op-Ed}} The [[1958 Pakistani military coup]] ended Pakistan's first era of parliamentary democracy as [[Muhammad Ayub Khan]], the [[Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army|commander-in-chief of the Pakistan Army]], overthrew the Bengali president [[Iskandar Ali Mirza]] and abolished the 1956 constitution. Many politicians were imprisoned and disqualified from holding public office, including Mujib's mentor Suhrawardy.{{cite news |url=https://www.dawn.com/news/1195290 |title=The political victimisation of Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy |work=Dawn |date=21 July 2015}} A [[Constitution of Pakistan of 1962|new constitution]] was introduced by Ayub Khan which curtailed [[universal suffrage]] and empowered electoral colleges to elect the country's parliament.{{cite journal |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/4323370 |jstor=4323370 |title=Pakistan's Basic Democracy |last1=Sayeed |first1=Khalid B. |journal=Middle East Journal |year=1961 |volume=15 |issue=3 |pages=249–263}}{{cite journal |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/48505506 |jstor=48505506 |title=Ayub Khan's Basic Democracy and Political Continuity in Contemporary Pakistan |last1=Mukherjee |first1=Kunal |journal=India Quarterly |year=2016 |volume=72 |issue=3 |pages=268–277 |doi=10.1177/0974928416656498 |s2cid=157810936}} ===Six point movement=== {{Main|Six point movement}} [[File:Fatima Jinnah election campaign in East Pakistan.jpg|thumb|[[Fatima Jinnah]], Sheikh Mujib and Maulana Bhashani during Jinnah's presidential election campaign]] [[File:Mujib in Jessore with Mosharraf and kadir (1966).jpg|thumb|Mujib addressing supporters in [[Jessore]] during the [[six point movement|6-point movement]] in 1966]] [[File:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 1970 election result.jpg|thumb|Sheikh Mujib with women leaders of the Awami League, including [[Syeda Sajeda Chowdhury]] and others. By the late 1960s, the [[Mujib coat]] became his signature style.]] [[File:Awami League leaders after the 1970 Pakistani General Election.webp|thumb|Mujib with other Awami League leaders, including [[Tajuddin Ahmad]] and [[Syed Nazrul Islam]]]] Following Suhrawardy's death in 1963, Mujib became General Secretary of the All Pakistan Awami League with [[Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan]] as its titular president.{{Cite news |url=https://dailytimes.com.pk/671334/nawabzada-nasrullah-remembered-on-death-anniversary/ |title=Nawabzada Nasrullah remembered on death anniversary |work=Daily Times |date=27 September 2020}}{{Cite web |url=https://storyofpakistan.com/nawabzada-nasrullah-khan/ |title=Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan |date=6 January 2011}} The [[Constitution of Pakistan of 1962|1962 constitution]] introduced a [[presidential republic]].{{cite news |title=Special report: The Changing of the Guard 1958-1969 |url=https://www.dawn.com/news/1355171 |work=Dawn |quote="Ayub sought some form of public legitimacy as all military dictators have been forced to, lifting martial law in 1962 following the implementation of a presidential-form constitution."}} Mujib was one of the key leaders to rally opposition to president Ayub Khan who enacted a system of [[electoral college]]s to elect the country's parliament and president under a system known as "Basic Democracy".{{Cite web |url={{GBurl|id=iv49AAAAYAAJ}} |title=Basic Democracies Works Programme and Rural Development in East Pakistan |first=Rehman |last=Sobhan |date=8 January 1968 |publisher=Bureau of Economic Research, University of Dacca}}{{cite journal |last=Rashiduzzaman |first=M. |date=July 2006 |title=The Awami League in the Political Development of Pakistan |journal=Asian Survey |volume=10 |issue=7 |pages=574–587 |jstor=2642956 |doi=10.2307/2642956}} [[Universal suffrage]] was curtailed as part of the Basic Democracy scheme. Mujib supported opposition candidate [[Fatima Jinnah]] against Ayub Khan in the [[1965 Pakistani presidential election|1965 presidential election]].{{cite book |title=Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Struggle for Independence: UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, De-classified Documents, 1962–1971 |editor=Enayetur Rahim and Joyce L. Rahim |publisher=Hakkani Publishers |year=2013 |isbn=978-7021400675 |pages=173–174}} Fatima Jinnah, the sister of Pakistan's founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah, drew huge crowds in East Pakistan during her presidential campaign which was supported by the Combined Opposition Party, including the Awami League.{{cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/10/18/archives/east-pakistanis-hail-miss-jinnah-campaign-train-of-ayub-foe-is.html |title=East Pakistanis Hail Miss Jinnah; Campaign Train of Ayub Foe is Thronged on Tour |work=The New York Times |date=18 October 1964}} East Pakistan was the hotbed of opposition to the presidency of Ayub Khan.{{cite journal |last=Choudhury |first=G. W. |author-link=G. W. Choudhury |date=April 1972 |title=Bangladesh: Why It Happened |journal=International Affairs |volume=48 |issue=2 |pages=242–249 |doi=10.2307/2613440 |jstor=2613440}} Mujib became popular for voicing the grievances of the Bengali population, including under-representation in the military and central bureaucracy.{{cite book |last=Jahan |first=Rounaq |title=Pakistan: Failure in National Integration |publisher=Columbia University Press |year=1972 |isbn=978-0231036252 |author-link=Rounaq Jahan |pages=166–167}} Despite generating most of Pakistan's export earnings and customs tax revenue, East Pakistan received a smaller budget allocation than West Pakistan.{{cite web |url=http://www.defencejournal.com/2002/dec/demons.htm |title=Demons of December – Road from East Pakistan to Bangladesh |publisher=Defencejournal.com |access-date=23 June 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110609122558/http://www.defencejournal.com/2002/dec/demons.htm |archive-date=9 June 2011 |url-status=live}} The [[Indo-Pakistani War of 1965|1965 war between India and Pakistan]] ended in stalemate. The [[Tashkent Declaration]] was domestically seen as giving away Pakistan's gains to India. Ayub Khan's foreign minister [[Zulfikar Ali Bhutto]] resigned from the government,{{cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/1966/06/18/archives/bhutto-leaving-cabinet-in-pakistan-he-confirms.html |title=Bhutto Leaving Cabinet in Pakistan, He Confirms |work=The New York Times |date=18 June 1966}} formed the [[Pakistan Peoples Party]], and exploited public discontent against the regime. In 1965, Pakistan banned the works of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore in state media.{{Cite news |url=https://www.dailypioneer.com/2018/columnists/iccrs-misadventure-with-urdu.html |title=ICCR's misadventure with Urdu |work=The Pioneer}}{{cite news |url=https://www.newagebd.net/article/11351/i-used-to-sing-rabindra-sangeet |title=I used to sing Rabindra Sangeet |work=New Age}}{{cite news |url=https://www.tbsnews.net/thoughts/exploring-history-bangladesh-through-different-lens-276319 |title=Exploring the history of Bangladesh through a different lens |work=Business Standard |date=18 July 2021}} Censorship in state media spurred Bengali civil society groups like [[Chhayanaut]] to preserve Bengali culture. When Ayub Khan compared Bengalis to beasts, the poet [[Sufia Kamal]] retorted that "If the people are beasts then as the President of the Republic, you are the king of the beasts".{{Cite news |url=https://archive.thedailystar.net/forum/2012/July/sufia.htm |title=Forum |work=The Daily Star}} ''[[The Daily Ittefaq]]'' led by [[Tofazzal Hossain (civil servant)|Tofazzal Hossain]] voiced growing aspirations for democracy, autonomy, and nationalism. Economists in Dhaka University pointed to the massive reallocation of revenue to West Pakistan despite East Pakistan's role in generating most of Pakistan's export income. [[Rehman Sobhan]] paraphrased the [[two-nation theory]] into the two economies theory.{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/the-two-economies-thesis-road-to-the-six-points-programme-29679 |title=The Two Economies thesis: Road to the Six Points Programme |first= |last=Nurul Islam |date=22 June 2014 |work=The Daily Star}}{{Cite web |url=https://cpd.org.bd/from-two-economies-to-two-nations-my-journey-to-bangladesh/ |title=Two Economies to Two Nations: Rehman Sobhan's Journey to Bangladesh |work=CPD |date=30 August 2015}}{{cite news |url=https://www.tbsnews.net/first-anniversary/two-economies-two-nations-revisiting-bangladeshs-economic-transformation-189289 |title=From Two Economies to Two Nations: Revisiting Bangladesh's Economic Transformation |work=The Daily Star |date=21 January 2021}}{{Cite web |url=https://www.goodreads.com/work/best_book/48150285-from-two-economies-to-two-nations-my-journey-to-bangladesh |title=From Two Economies To Two Nations |website=goodreads.com}} He argued that East and West Pakistan had two fundamentally distinct economies within one country. In 1966, Mujib put forward a 6-point plan at a national conference of opposition parties in [[Lahore]]. The city of Lahore was chosen because of its symbolism as the place where the [[Lahore Resolution]] was adopted by the Muslim League in 1940. The six points called for abolishing the Basic Democracy scheme, restoring universal suffrage, devolving federal power to the provinces of East and West Pakistan, separate fiscal, monetary and trade policies for East and West Pakistan, and increased security spending for East Pakistan.{{cite web |url=https://cri.org.bd/2021/06/16/all-you-need-to-know-about-the-six-point-movement-in-east-pakistan/ |title=All you need to know about the Six-Point Movement in East Pakistan |date=16 June 2021}}
# The constitution should provide for a Federation of Pakistan in its true sense based on the [[Lahore Resolution]] and the parliamentary form of government with supremacy of a legislature directly elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. # The federal government should deal with only two subjects: defence and foreign affairs, and all other residuary subjects shall be vested in the federating states. # Two separate, but freely convertible currencies for two wings should be introduced; or if this is not feasible, there should be one currency for the whole country, but effective constitutional provisions should be introduced to stop the flight of capital from East to West Pakistan. Furthermore, a separate banking reserve should be established and a separate fiscal and monetary policy be adopted for East Pakistan. # The power of taxation and revenue collection shall be vested in the federating units and the federal center will have no such power. The Federation will be entitled to a share in the state taxes to meet its expenditures. # There should be two separate accounts for the foreign exchange earnings of the two wings; the foreign exchange requirements of the federal government should be met by the two wings equally or in a ratio to be fixed; indigenous products should move free of duty between the two wings, and the constitution should empower the units to establish trade links with foreign countries. # East Pakistan should have its own security force.
Mujib's points catalysed public support across East Pakistan, launching what historians have termed the ''[[six point movement]]'' – recognised as the turning point towards East and West Pakistan becoming two nations.{{cite news |last=Manik |first=M. Waheeduzzaman |date=7 June 2008 |title=The historic six-point movement and its impact on the struggle for independence |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-40021 |newspaper=The Daily Star |access-date=3 August 2017}}{{cite book |title=Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Struggle for Independence: UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, De-classified Documents, 1962–1971 |editor=Enayetur Rahim and Joyce L. Rahim |publisher=Hakkani Publishers |year=2013 |isbn=978-7021400675 |page=28}} Mujib insisted on a federal democracy and obtained broad support from the Bengali population.{{sfn|Karim|2005|pp=136–138}}{{cite book |title=Redemption of the baffled hero: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman |year=2002 |first=Kazi M. |last=Sakhawatullah |publisher=Gonoprokashani |pages=82–97}} In 1966, Mujib was elected as President of the Awami League. [[Tajuddin Ahmad]] succeeded him as General Secretary. ===Agartala Conspiracy Case=== {{Main|Agartala Conspiracy Case}} [[File:Release of Sheikh Mujib from Prison.jpg|thumb|Sheikh Mujib being released from prison after a mass uprising in East Pakistan against the Agartala Conspiracy Case. Mujib often donned a South Asian prince suit.]] Mujib was arrested by the Pakistan Army and after two years in jail, an official sedition trial in a military court opened. During his imprisonment between 1967 and 1969, Mujib began to write his autobiography.{{Cite web |url=http://www.uplbooks.com/news/%E2%80%9C-unfinished-memoirs%E2%80%9D-bangabandhu-sheikh-mujibur-rahman-released-bangladesh-india-and-pakistan |title='The Unfinished Memoirs' by Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman released in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan |publisher=The University Press Limited |website=uplbooks.com}} In what is widely known as the [[Agartala Conspiracy Case]], Mujib and 34 Bengali military officers were accused by the government of colluding with Indian government agents in a scheme to divide Pakistan and threaten its unity, order and national security. The plot was alleged to have been planned in the city of [[Agartala]] in the bordering Indian state of [[Tripura]]. The outcry and unrest over Mujib's arrest and the charge of sedition against him destabilised East Pakistan amidst large protests and strikes. Various Bengali political and student groups added demands to address the issues of students, workers and the poor, forming a larger "11-point plan". The government caved to the mounting pressure, dropped the charges on 22 February 1969 and unconditionally released Mujib the following day. He returned to East Pakistan as a public hero.{{cite news |last=Ahsan |first=Syed Badrul |date=18 June 2008 |title=Agartala Conspiracy Case forty years on |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-41580 |newspaper=The Daily Star}} He was given a mass reception on 23 February, at the [[Ramna Race Course]] and conferred with the popular honorary title of ''Bangabandhu'' by [[Tofail Ahmed]].{{cite news |url=https://archive.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2021/03/22/when-sheikh-mujibur-rahman-became-bangabandhu |title=When Sheikh Mujibur Rahman became Bangabandhu |work=Dhaka Tribune |date=22 March 2021}} The term ''Bangabandhu'' means ''Friend of the Bengal'' in the Bengali language. Several of Bengal's historic leaders were given similar honorary titles, including ''Sher-e-Bangla'' (''Lion of Bengal'') for [[A. K. Fazlul Huq]], ''Deshbandhu'' (''Friend of the Nation'') for [[Chittaranjan Das]], and ''Netaji'' (''The Leader'') for [[Subhash Chandra Bose]]. === 1969 uprising and Round Table Conference === {{Main|1969 East Pakistan uprising}} [[File:Mass uprising 1969 Dhaka University.jpg|thumb|left|Students in Dhaka University demanding the release of political prisoners, including Sheikh Mujib]] [[File:Sheikh Mujib and Ayub Khan.jpg|thumb|[[Muhammad Ayub Khan|Ayub Khan]] and Sheikh Mujib shaking hands at the Round Table Conference in [[West Pakistan]], 1969]] [[File:Round Table Conference in Pakistan in 1969.jpg|thumb|Sheikh Mujib and President Ayub Khan seated opposite each other at the Round Table Conference in 1969]] In 1969, President Ayub Khan convened a Round Table Conference with opposition parties to find a way out of the prevailing political impasse. A few days after his release from prison, Mujib flew to [[Rawalpindi]] to attend the Round Table Conference.{{Cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U38kZqY6xS8 |title=Sheikh Mujibur Rahman {{!}} East Pakistan {{!}} Bangladesh {{!}} Pakistan {{!}} 1969 |via=YouTube}} Mujib sought to bargain for East Pakistan's autonomy. Mujib was the most powerful opposition leader at the Round Table Conference. Ayub Khan shook hands with Mujib, whom Khan previously had imprisoned. Talking to British media, Mujib said "East Pakistan must get full regional autonomy. It must be self-sufficient in all respects. It must get its due share and legitimate share in the central administration. The West Pakistani people support [East Pakistani demands]. Only the vested interests want to divide the people of East and West Pakistan". When asked about the prospect of East Pakistan ruling West Pakistan if the Awami League gained power, Mujib replied that majority rule is important in a democracy but the people of East Pakistan had no intention to discriminate against West Pakistan, and that West Pakistani parties would continue to play an important role. Mujib toured West Pakistani cities by train after the Round Table Conference. West Pakistani crowds received him with chants of "Sheikh Saheb Zindabad!" (meaning Long Live the Sheikh!).{{cite news |url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/op-ed/2022/03/17/a-lapsed-teenager-remembers |title=A lapsed teenager remembers |work=Dhaka Tribune |date=17 March 2022}} He was received by huge crowds in [[Quetta]], Baluchistan. He spoke to West Pakistani crowds in a heavily Bengali accent of [[Urdu]], talking about ''chhey nukati'' (six points) and ''hum chhoy dofa mangta sab ke liye''. Mujib demanded that Pakistan accept his six-point plan for federal democracy. He wasn't satisfied by Ayub Khan's pledges. When he returned to Dhaka, he declared that East Pakistan should be known as ''Bangladesh''. On 5 December 1969 Mujib made a declaration at a public meeting, held to observe the death anniversary of his mentor Suhrawardy, that henceforth East Pakistan would be called "Bangladesh":
There was a time when all efforts were made to erase the word "Bangla" from this land and its map. The existence of the word "Bangla" was found nowhere except in the term Bay of Bengal. I on behalf of Pakistan announce today that this land will be called "Bangladesh" instead of East Pakistan.
Mujib's fiery rhetoric ignited Bengali nationalism and pro-independence aspirations among the masses, students, professionals, and intellectuals of East Pakistan. Many observers believed that Bengali nationalism was a rejection of Pakistan's founding two-nation theory but Mujib never phrased his rhetoric in these terms.{{cite book |last1=Baxter |first1=Craig |author1-link=Craig Baxter |last2=Malik |first2=Yogendra K. |last3=Kennedy |first3=Charles |last4=Oberst |first4=Robert C. |date=1998 |title=Government and Politics in South Asia |edition=5th |publisher=Westview Press |location=Boulder, CO |page=251 |isbn=978-0813339016 |quote=Bangladesh's independence from Pakistan in 1971 was seen by many as the logical division of two disparate wings of a country united only by Islam, a mutual concern about India ... but divided by language and social customs ... the cultural differences between East and West Pakistan were so great that the division might be described as a second 'Two-Nation Theory,' based this time on culture rather than religion as in 1947.}} Mujib was able to galvanise support throughout East Pakistan, which was home to the majority of Pakistan's population. He became one of the most powerful political figures in the [[Indian subcontinent]]. Bengalis increasingly referred to him as ''Bangabandhu''. === 1970 election === {{Main|1970 Pakistani general election}} [[File:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 1970 meeting.jpg|thumb|Sheikh Mujib addressing a huge rally in Dhaka's [[Paltan Maidan]] in 1970]] [[File:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 1970 election campaign train station.jpg|thumb|left|Sheikh Mujib waving to crowds from a train during his election campaign in 1970]] [[File:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman election rally 1970.jpg|thumb|Mujib campaigning before the 1970 election]] [[File:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman casting ballot 1970 election.jpg|thumb|Sheikh Mujib casting his [[ballot]] during the general election in 1970]] In March 1969, Ayub Khan resigned and [[Yahya Khan]] became president. Prior to the scheduled general election for 1970, one of the [[1970 Bhola cyclone|most powerful cyclones on record]] devastated East Pakistan, leaving half a million people dead and millions displaced. President Yahya Khan, who was flying back from China after the cyclone, viewed the devastation from the air. The ruling military junta was slow to respond with relief efforts. Newspapers in East Pakistan accused the federal government of "gross neglect, callous inattention, and bitter indifference".{{Cite web |url=http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/16.htm |title=Bangladesh – Emerging Discontent, 1966–70 |website=countrystudies.us}} Mujib remarked that "We have a large army but it is left to the British Marines to bury our dead". International aid had to pour in due to the slow response of the Pakistani military regime. Bengalis were outraged at what was widely considered to be the weak and ineffective response of the federal government to the disaster.{{cite book |date=1989 |editor1-last=Heitzman |editor1-first=James |editor2-last=Worden |editor2-first=Robert |chapter=Emerging discontent 1966–1970 |chapter-url=http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/16.htm |title=Bangladesh: A Country Study |url=http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/ |location=Washington, D.C. |publisher=Federal Research Division, Library of Congress |pages=28–29}}{{cite news |title=Yahya Directing Disaster Relief |newspaper=The New York Times |agency=United Press International |date=24 November 1970 |page=9}} Public opinion and political parties in East Pakistan blamed the ruling military junta for the lack of relief efforts. The dissatisfaction led to divisions between East Pakistanis and West Pakistanis within the civil services, police and Pakistani Armed Forces.{{cite news |last=Durdin |first=Tillman |date=11 March 1971 |title=Pakistanis Crisis Virtually Halts Rehabilitation Work in Cyclone Region |newspaper=The New York Times |page=2}} In the Pakistani general elections [[1970 Pakistani general election|held on 7 December 1970]], the Awami League won 167 out of 169 seats belonging to East Pakistan in the [[National Assembly of Pakistan]], as well as a landslide in the [[East Pakistan Provincial Assembly]].{{sfn|Kaushik|Patnayak|1995|p=295}}{{cite book |title=The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics |page=264 |author=Meghna Guhathakurta and Willem van Schendel |year=2003 |publisher=Duke University Press |isbn=978-0822353188}} The Awami League emerged as the single largest party in the federal parliament of Pakistan. With 167 seats, it was past the halfway mark of 150 seats in the 300 member national assembly and had the right to form a government of its own. Sheikh Mujib was widely considered to be the [[Prime Minister-elect]], including by President Yahya Khan. The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) came in second with 86 seats. The new parliament was scheduled to hold its first sitting in Dhaka, Pakistan's legislative capital under the 1962 constitution. The political crisis emerged when PPP leader Zulfikar Ali Bhutto declared that his party would boycott parliament if Mujib formed the next government. Bhutto threatened to break the legs of any West Pakistani MP-elect who accepted Mujib's mandate.{{cite news |title=Pakistani Cabinet Dissolved by Yahya |url=https://www.nytimes.com/1971/02/22/archives/pakistani-cabinet-dissolved-by-yahya.html |work=The New York Times |date=22 February 1971 |access-date=29 April 2017}}{{cite book |last=Hossain |first=Kamal |date=2013 |title=Bangladesh: Quest for Freedom and Justice |publisher=Oxford University Press |page=130 |isbn=978-0199068531}}{{Cite book |url={{GBurl|id=xzGOBAAAQBAJ|dq=bhutto threatens to break legs|p=167}} |title=The Struggle for Pakistan: A Muslim Homeland and Global Politics |first=Ayesha |last=Jalal |date=16 September 2014 |publisher=Harvard University Press |isbn=9780674052895 |via=Google Books}}{{Cite book |last=Sobhan |first=Rehman |url={{GBurl|id=8qeMCwAAQBAJ|dq=bhutto threatens to break legs 1971|pg=PT300}} |title=Untranquil Recollections: The Years of Fulfilment |date= 2015 |publisher=Sage Publications India |isbn=9789351503200 |author-link=Rehman Sobhan |via=Google Books}}{{cite news |url=https://www.dawn.com/news/1359141 |title=Special report: The Breakup of Pakistan 1969–1971 |work=Dawn |date=23 September 2017}}{{Cite news |url=https://tribune.com.pk/article/75627/udhar-tum-idhar-hum-when-bhutto-divided-pakistan-into-east-and-west |title="Udhar tum, idhar hum": When Bhutto pushed Bangladesh to the edge of Pakistan |date=17 December 2018 |work=The Express Tribune}} However, [[Khan Abdul Wali Khan]] of the [[Awami National Party]] from [[North West Frontier Province]] was open to accepting an Awami League government and travelled to Dhaka to meet with Mujib.{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news/he-rallied-for-mujib-against-yahya |title=He rallied for Mujib, against Yahya |first=Zyma |last=Islam |date=3 October 2013 |work=The Daily Star}} Many in Pakistan's [[Establishment (Pakistan)|establishment]] were opposed to Mujib becoming Pakistan's prime minister. At the time neither Mujib nor the Awami League had explicitly advocated political independence for East Pakistan, but smaller nationalist groups were demanding independence for ''Bangladesh''.{{cite book |last=Ahmed |first=Salahuddin |date=2004 |title=Bangladesh: Past and Present |publisher=APH Publishing |page=63 |isbn=978-8176484695}} Both Bhutto and Yahya Khan travelled to Dhaka for negotiations with the Awami League. Mujib's delegation included the notable lawyer and constitutional expert [[Kamal Hossain]]. The Bengali negotiating position is extensively discussed in Kamal Hossain's autobiography ''Bangladesh: Quest for Freedom and Justice''.{{Cite book |url={{GBurl|id=yW1angEACAAJ}} |title=Bangladesh: Quest for Freedom and Justice |first=Kamal |last=Hossain |date= 2013 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-906853-1 |via=Google Books}} The Pakistani government was represented by former chief justice [[Alvin Robert Cornelius]]. At the [[InterContinental Dhaka]], Bengali chefs refused to cook food for Yahya Khan. Governor [[Sahabzada Yaqub Khan]] requested the Awami League to end the strike of the chefs at the InterContinental Hotel. Bhutto feared civil war, and sent a secret message to Mujib and his inner circle to arrange a meeting with them.{{cite book |last=Hassan |first=Mubashir |author-link=Mubashir Hassan |date=2000 |title=The Mirage of Power: An Inquiry Into the Bhutto Years |publisher=Oxford University Press |page=3 |isbn=978-0195793000}}{{cite news |last=Liton |first=Shakhawat |date=12 July 2016 |title=Who was a liar – Yahya or Bhutto? |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/op-ed/who-was-liar-yahya-or-bhutto-200383 |newspaper=The Daily Star |type=Op-ed |access-date=3 August 2017}} [[Mubashir Hassan]] met with Mujib and persuaded him to form a coalition government with Bhutto. They decided that Bhutto would serve as president, with Mujib as Prime Minister. These developments took place secretly and no Pakistan Armed Forces personnel were kept informed. Meanwhile, Bhutto increased the pressure on Yahya Khan to take a stand on dissolving the government.{{cite book |title=The Mirage of Power: An Inquiry Into the Bhutto Years |page=107 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0195793000 |year=2000}} ==Establishment of Bangladesh== {{See also|Non-cooperation movement (1971)|7 March Speech of Bangabandhu|Bangladesh Liberation War|Provisional Government of Bangladesh}} ===Civil disobedience=== The National Assembly was scheduled to meet in Dhaka on 3 March 1971. President Yahya Khan indefinitely postponed the assembly's first sitting, which triggered an uprising in East Pakistan. The cities of Dhaka, [[Chittagong]], [[Rajshahi]], [[Rangpur, Bangladesh|Rangpur]], and [[Khulna]] were engulfed with protests. Amid signs of an impending crackdown, Mujib addressed the people of East Pakistan on 7 March 1971 at the Ramna Race Course Maidan.{{sfn|Kaushik|Patnayak|1995|p=296}}{{cite news |title=Bangabandhu's March 7 speech Bangladesh's inspiration to rise: PM |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/news/bangabandhus-march-7-speech-bangladeshs-inspiration-to-rise-pm |newspaper=The Daily Star |date=11 March 2013 |access-date=25 May 2013}}{{cite web |url=http://www.bangabandhu.com.bd/2013/03/07/historic-7th-march-speech-of-bangabandhu/ |title=Historic 7th March speech of Bangabandhu |last=Hossain |first=Amir |date=7 March 2013 |website=Bangabandhu – The Man Behind the Nation |type=Blog |access-date=25 May 2013}}{{cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ep74MqbXEWU |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120828042547/http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ep74MqbXEWU&feature=share |archive-date=28 August 2012 |url-status=dead |title=1971 March 7th shek mujibur rahman |via=YouTube |access-date=25 May 2013}} In his speech, Mujib laid out the political history of Pakistan since partition and told the crowd that "[w]e gave blood in 1952; we won a mandate in 1954; but we were still not allowed to take up the reigns of this country".{{Cite web |url=https://www.cbgr1971.org/index.php/sheikh-mujib-s-march-7-speech-english-text |title=Sheikh Mujib's March 7 Speech - English Text |website=cbgr1971.org}} While Mujib stopped short of declaring outright independence, he stated that the goal of the Awami League from then on would be eventual independence. He declared that the Awami League would collect taxes and form committees in every neighbourhood to organise resistance. He called on the people "to turn every house into a fortress". His most famous words from the speech were the following.
This time the struggle is for our liberation! This time the struggle is for our independence!{{cite magazine |title=The World: Bangladesh: Out of War, a Nation Is Born |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,878969,00.html |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070112032245/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,878969,00.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=12 January 2007 |magazine=Time |date=20 December 1971 |access-date=25 May 2013}}
(For more info, see: ''[[7 March Speech of Bangabandhu]]''){{cite book |last=Sen Gupta |first=Jyoti |date=1974 |title=History of freedom movement in Bangladesh, 1943–1973: some involvement |url={{GBurl|id=DedtAAAAMAAJ}} |location=Calcutta |publisher=Naya Prokash |pages=325–326 |access-date=18 February 2013}}
Following the speech, 17 days of civil disobedience known as the [[Non-cooperation movement (1971)|non-cooperation movement]] took place across East Pakistan.{{sfn|Kaushik|Patnayak|1995|p=296}} The Awami League began to collect taxes while all monetary transfers to West Pakistan were suspended. East Pakistan came under the ''de facto'' control of the Awami League. On 23 March 1971, [[flag of Bangladesh|Bangladeshi flags]] were flown throughout East Pakistan on Pakistan's Republic Day as a show of resistance. The Awami League and the Pakistani military leadership continued negotiations over the transfer of power. However, West Pakistani troops were being flown into the eastern wing through [[Pakistan International Airlines|PIA]] flights while arms were being unloaded from [[Pakistan Navy]] ships in Chittagong harbour.{{Cite news |url=https://www.thefridaytimes.com/2019/08/30/pia-at-war/ |title=PIA at War |first=Major General Syed Ali |last=Hamid |work=The Friday Times |date=30 August 2019}}{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news/swat-draws-full-house-in-chittagong |title='Swat ' draws full house in Chittagong |date=26 March 2013 |work=The Daily Star}} The Pakistani military was preparing for a crackdown. ===Outbreak of war=== [[File:Sheikh Mujib under Pakistani military custody in 1971.jpg|thumb|Sheikh Mujib under Pakistani military custody after he was arrested and flown to West Pakistan during the [[Bangladesh Liberation War]]]] Talks broke down on 25 March 1971 when Yahya Khan left Dhaka, declared martial law, banned the Awami League and ordered the Pakistan Army to arrest Mujib and other Bengali leaders and activists. The [[Pakistan Army]] launched [[Operation Searchlight]]. Mujib sent telegrams to [[Chittagong]] where [[M. A. Hannan]] from the Awami League and Major [[Ziaur Rahman]] from the [[East Bengal Regiment]] announced the [[Bangladeshi declaration of independence]] on Mujib's behalf. The text of Mujib's telegram sent at midnight on 26 March 1971 stated the following: {{blockquote|This may be my last message, from today Bangladesh is independent. I call upon the people of Bangladesh wherever you might be and with whatever you have, to resist the army of occupation to the last. Your fight must go on until the last soldier of the Pakistan occupation army is expelled from the soil of Bangladesh and final victory is achieved.|}} Shortly after having declared the independence of Bangladesh,{{Cite journal |last=Ludden |first=David |year=2011 |title=The Politics of Independence in Bangladesh |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/23017911 |journal=Economic and Political Weekly |volume=46 |issue=35 |pages=79–85 |jstor=23017911 |issn=0012-9976 |via=JSTOR}} Mujib was arrested without charges and flown to prison in West Pakistan after midnight. Mujib was moved to West Pakistan and kept under heavy guard in a jail near [[Faisalabad]]. Sheikh Mujib was later moved to [[Central Jail Mianwali]] where he remained in [[solitary confinement]] for the entirety of the war.{{cite news |url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2018/08/15/pakistani-jailer-remembers-incarcerated-bangabandhu |title=Pakistani jailer remembers incarcerated Bangabandhu |date=15 August 2018 |access-date=25 December 2021 |work=Dhaka Tribune |last=Badrul Ahsan |first=Syed}}{{cite news |last=Samad |first=Saleem |author-link=Saleem Samad |date=17 March 2021 |title=Bangabandhu in Mianwali Jail |work=[[The Business Standard]] |url=https://www.tbsnews.net/bangladesh/bangabandhu-mianwali-jail-217729 |access-date=25 December 2021}} [[Kamal Hossain]] was also arrested and flown to West Pakistan while many other League leaders escaped to India.{{cite news |url=http://search.time.com/results.html?Ntt=Bangladesh&Nf=p_date_range%7cBTWN+19710101+19711231 |magazine=Time |title=Search results of From Jan 01, 1971 to Dec 31, 1971 |date=20 December 1971 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151017154151/http://search.time.com/results.html?Ntt=Bangladesh&Nf=p_date_range%7cBTWN+19710101+19711231 |archive-date=17 October 2015 |df=dmy-all}} Pakistani general [[Rahimuddin Khan]] was appointed to preside over Mujib's [[court-martial]] trial, the proceedings of which have never been made public.{{cite news |date=20 December 2005 |title=Second Opinion: An honest look at the Dhaka debacle Khaled Ahmed's TV Review |url=http://archives.dailytimes.com.pk/editorial/20-Dec-2005/second-opinion-an-honest-look-at-the-dhaka-debacle-khaled-ahmed-s-tv-review |newspaper=Daily Times |location=Lahore |access-date=27 January 2006 |quote=Brig Siddiqi, commenting on his latest book on the fall of East Pakistan, said that the morale of the Pakistani troops was extremely low in 1970–71, but General Rahimuddin had tried East Pakistan's charismatic leader Mujibur Rehman in Faisalabad. (General Yahya did not confirm it.) |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150109162831/http://archives.dailytimes.com.pk/editorial/20-Dec-2005/second-opinion-an-honest-look-at-the-dhaka-debacle-khaled-ahmed-s-tv-review |archive-date=9 January 2015 |df=dmy-all}} Mujib was sentenced to death but his execution was deferred on three occasions. The Pakistan Army's operations in East Pakistan were widely labelled as [[genocide]].{{cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/1971/08/17/archives/kennedy-in-india-terms-pakistani-drive-genocide.html |title=Kennedy, in India, Terms Pakistani Drive Genocide |work=The New York Times |date=17 August 1971}}Blood, Archer, [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB79/BEBB1.pdf Transcript of Selective Genocide Telex], Department of State, United States The Pakistan Army carried out [[Bangladesh genocide|atrocities]] against Bengali civilians. With help from [[Jamaat-e-Islami|Jamaat]] militias like the [[Razakars (Pakistan)|Razakars]], [[Al-Badr]] and [[Al-Shams (East Pakistan)|Al-Shams]], the army targeted Bengali intellectuals, professionals, politicians, students, and other ordinary civilians. Many Bengali women suffered [[Rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War|rape]]. Due to the deteriorating situation, large numbers of Hindus fled across the border to the neighbouring Indian states of [[West Bengal]], Assam and [[Tripura]].US State Department, ''Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969–1976'', Vol. XI, ''South Asia Crisis, 1971'', p. 165 Bengali army and police regiments soon [[mutiny|revolted]] and League leaders formed the [[Provisional Government of Bangladesh]]. A major insurgency led by the [[Mukti Bahini]] arose across East Pakistan. Despite international pressure, the Pakistani government refused to release Mujib and negotiate with him. Mujib's family was kept under house arrest during this period. [[General Osmani]] was the key military commanding officer in the Mukti Bahini. Following [[Indo-Pakistani War of 1971|Indian intervention]] in December, the [[Pakistani Instrument of Surrender|Pakistan Army surrendered]] to the allied forces of Bangladesh and India.{{cite book |last=Faiquzzaman |first=Mohammad |year=2012 |chapter=Mujibnagar Government |chapter-url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Mujibnagar_Government |editor1-last=Sirajul Islam |editor1-link=Sirajul Islam |editor2-last=Jamal |editor2-first=Ahmed A. |title=Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh |edition=2nd |publisher=Asiatic Society of Bangladesh}}[http://www.mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/5312/Instrument+of+Surrender+of+Pakistan+forces+in+Dacca Instrument of Surrender of Pakistan forces in Dacca, December 16, 1971] ===Homecoming=== [[File:Homecoming Speech of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 10 January 1972.jpg|thumb|300px|Sheikh Mujib's homecoming speech in Dhaka on 10 January 1972]] Upon assuming the presidency after Yahya Khan's resignation, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto responded to international pressure and released Mujib on 8 January 1972.{{Cite book |last=Gandhi |first=Rajmohan |url={{GBurl|id=OVqP54UEe4QC}} |page=331 |title=Revenge and Reconciliation |date=1999 |publisher=Penguin Books India |isbn=978-0-14-029045-5 |language=en}} Kamal Hossain was also released. Bhutto and [[Aziz Ahmed (civil servant)|Aziz Ahmed]] secretly met Mujib and Kamal Hossain in [[Rawalpindi]].{{cite news |url=https://mobile.nytimes.com/1971/12/28/archives/bhutto-meets-with-mujib-says-hell-continue-talks-bhutto-meets-with.html |title=Bhutto Meets With Mujib; Says He'll Continue Talrs |newspaper=The New York Times |url-access=limited |author=Malcolm Browne |date=28 December 1971}} Bhutto proposed a last minute attempt at mediation through the [[Mohammad Reza Pahlavi|Shah of Iran]], who was scheduled to arrive the next day.{{Cite web |url=https://alalodulal.org/2015/11/27/kamal-hossain-2/ |title=History Wars: Kamal Hossain Interview (Part 2) |date=28 November 2015}} Mujib declined the offer after consulting with Kamal Hossain. Mujib requested a flight to London.{{cite news |title=In their words: Bhutto and Mujib, December, 1971 |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/in-their-words-bhutto-and-mujib-december-1971-50468 |work=The Daily Star |date=15 November 2014 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170820150110/http://www.thedailystar.net/in-their-words-bhutto-and-mujib-december-1971-50468 |archive-date=20 August 2017}} Both Mujib and Hossain were then flown to London. En route to London, their plane made a stopover in [[Cyprus]] for refuelling.{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/supplements/bangabandhus-homecoming-day/news/journey-darkness-light-1852066 |title=A journey from darkness to light |first=Dr Kamal |last=Hossain |date=10 January 2020 |work=The Daily Star}} In London, Mujib was welcomed by British officials and a policeman remarked "Sir, we have been praying for you".{{cite news |url=https://www.thefinancialexpress.com.bd/national/british-policeman-to-bangabandhu-we-had-been-praying-for-you-1610259469 |title=British policeman to Bangabandhu: "We had been praying for you" |work=The Financial Express}} Mujib was lodged at [[Claridge's Hotel]] and later met with British Prime Minister [[Edward Heath]] at [[10 Downing Street]]. Heath and Mujib discussed Bangladesh's membership of the [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]]. Crowds of Bengalis converged on Claridge's Hotel to get a glimpse of Mujib.{{Cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kcpVhptDuQ |title=Press Conference of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in London 8 January 1972 |via=YouTube}} Mujib held his first press conference in 9 months and addressed the international media at Claridge's Hotel. He made the following remarks at the press conference.
I am free to share the unbounded joy of freedom with my fellow countrymen. We have won our freedom in an epic liberation struggle.{{Cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Gi5VkMxLsA |title=Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman at a press conference in London |via=YouTube}}
Mujib was provided an [[Royal Air Force|RAF]] plane by the British government to take him back to newly independent Bangladesh. He was accompanied on the flight by members of the Provisional Government of Bangladesh, as well as an emissary of India's premier Indira Gandhi. The emissary was Indian Bengali diplomat Shashank Banerjee, who recounted Mujib smoking his trademark smoking pipe with Erinmore tobacco.{{Cite news |url=https://en.prothomalo.com/bangladesh/13-historic-hours-in-air |title=13 historic hours in air |work=Prothom Alo}} During the flight, both men agreed that Bangladesh would adopt the [[Westminster]] style of parliamentary government. On Indira Gandhi's hopes for Bangladesh, Banerjee told Mujib that "on India's eastern flank, she wished to have a friendly power, a prosperous economy, and a secular democracy, with a parliamentary system of government".{{cite web |url=https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/southasia/2021/02/15/mujibur-rahmans-first-secret-meeting-with-an-indian-officer-me/ |title=Mujibur Rahman's First Secret Meeting with an Indian Officer – Me |date=15 February 2021}} Regarding the presence of Indian troops in Bangladesh, Mujib requested Banerjee to convey to the Indian government that Indian troops should be withdrawn as early as possible. The RAF [[de Havilland Comet]] made a stopover in the Middle East en route to Dhaka. The RAF plane then made a stopover in New Delhi. Mujib was received by Indian President [[Varahagiri Venkata Giri|V. V. Giri]] and Prime Minister [[Indira Gandhi]], as well as the entire Indian cabinet and chiefs of armed forces. Delhi was given a festive look as Mujib and Gandhi addressed a huge crowd where he publicly expressed his gratitude to Gandhi and the Indian public.{{cite news |last=Rahman |first=Aziz |date=13 January 2017 |title=Historic Homecoming of Bangabandhu |url=https://daily-sun.com/printversion/details/198019/Historic-Homecomingof-Bangabandhu |newspaper=Daily Sun}} After a few hours in Delhi, the RAF plane flew Mujib to Dhaka in independent Bangladesh. Before the plane landed, it circled the city to view the million people who converged on [[Tejgaon Airport]] to greet Mujib.{{Cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T9aeq1WfnIY |title=Bangabandhu returns home...coverage by ABC news at 10-01-1972.mp4 |via=YouTube}} In Dhaka, Mujib's homecoming was described as "one of the most emotional outbursts in that emotional part of the world".{{Cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PsTOIiJr7so |title=Sheikh Mujib's Return to Bangladesh – January 10, 1972 Monday |via=YouTube}} Crowds overwhelmed the airport tarmac and breached the security cordon as cabinet ministers went inside the plane to bring Mujib out. Mujib was given a [[guard of honour]] by members of the nascent [[Bangladesh Army]], [[Bangladesh Navy]], and [[Bangladesh Air Force]]. Mujib was driven in an open truck through the dense crowds for a speech at the Ramna Race Course, where ten months earlier he had announced the liberation movement.{{cite news |url=http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,905654,00.html |url-access=limited |title=Bangladesh: A Hero Returns Home |date=24 January 1972 |access-date=8 August 2017}}{{cite news |last=Haque |first=Junaidul |date=10 January 2014 |title=The return of Bangabandhu |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/the-return-of-bangabandhu-6167 |work=The Daily Star |access-date=15 August 2017}}{{Cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GYMThcUJ5cs |title=10 January 1972: Home Coming of Bangabandhu, NBC News Report |via=YouTube}}{{Cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tQk4r0FtmY |title=Sheik Mujibur Rahman declares region Independent Republic, ABC, March 26, 1971 – MMR Jalal |via=YouTube}} Mujib's emotional speech to the million-strong crowd was caught on camera by [[Marilyn Silverstone]] and [[Rashid Talukdar]]; the photos of his homecoming day have become iconic in Bangladeshi political and popular culture.{{cite web | url=http://www.londoni.co/index.php/64-history-of-bangladesh/biography/sheikh-mujibur-rahman-bangabandhu/324-sheikh-mujibur-rahman-bangabandhu-return-of-bangabandhu-re-building-bangladesh-biography-of-muslim-and-bengali | title=Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangabandhu) – return of Bangabandhu, re-building Bangladesh – biography of Muslim and Bengali }} == Governing Bangladesh == {{See also|Premiership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman}} [[File:The Bangladesh Gazette, July 6, 1972.pdf|thumb|The ''[[Bangladesh Gazette]]'' of 6 July 1972. The gazette officially published decisions and new laws of the government]] [[File:Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman with Bangladesh Air Force personnel (03).png|thumb|Mujib inspecting a guard of honour from [[Bangladesh Air Force]] personnel]] [[File:Bangabandhu Cox's Bazar.jpg|thumb|Mujib in [[Cox's Bazar]]]] Mujib briefly assumed the provisional presidency and later took office as the prime minister. In January 1972 ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' magazine reported that "[i]n the aftermath of the Pakistani army's rampage last March, a special team of inspectors from the World Bank observed that some cities looked "like the morning after a nuclear attack". Since then, the destruction has only been magnified. An estimated 6,000,000 homes have been destroyed, and nearly 1,400,000 farm families have been left without tools or animals to work their lands. Transportation and communications systems are totally disrupted. Roads are damaged, bridges out and inland waterways blocked. The rape of the country continued right up until the Pakistani army surrendered a month ago. In the last days of the war, West Pakistani-owned businesses—which included nearly every commercial enterprise in the country—remitted virtually all their funds to the West. Pakistan International Airlines left exactly 117 rupees ($16) in its account at the port city of Chittagong. The army also destroyed bank notes and coins, so that many areas now suffer from a severe shortage of ready cash. Private cars were picked up off the streets or confiscated from auto dealers and shipped to the West before the ports were closed.{{cite magazine |url=https://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,877626,00.html |url-access=limited |title=Banhladesh: Mujib's Road from Prison to Power |magazine=[[Time (magazine)|Time]] |date=17 January 1972 |access-date=1 September 2017}}{{cite news |url=http://dailyasianage.com/news/77958/bangabandhu-cared-about-the-poor |title=Bangabandhu cared about the poor |first=Mohshin |last=Habib |newspaper=The Asian Age |date=4 August 2017 |access-date=15 August 2017}} The new government of Bangladesh quickly converted East Pakistan's state apparatus into the machinery of an independent Bangladeshi state. For example, a presidential decree transformed the High Court of East Pakistan into the [[Supreme Court of Bangladesh]].{{cite web |url=https://whiteboardmagazine.com/1874/mujib-administrations-policy-action-timeline/ |title=Mujib Administration's Policy Action Timeline |date=16 March 2020}} The Awami League successfully reorganised the bureaucracy, framed a [[written constitution]], and rehabilitated war victims and survivors. In January 1972, Mujib introduced a [[parliamentary republic]] through a presidential decree. The emerging state structure was influenced by the [[Westminster]] model in which the Prime Minister was the most powerful leader while the President acted on the government's advice. MPs elected during the 1970 general election became members of the [[Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh]]. The Constitution Drafting Committee led by Dr. [[Kamal Hossain]] produced a draft constitution which was adopted on 4 November 1972 and came into force on 16 December 1972. In comparison to the prolonged constitution-making process in Pakistan during the 1950s, the Awami League was credited for swiftly enacting the [[Constitution of Bangladesh]] within just one year of independence. However, the League is criticised for this swift enactment because the Constituent Assembly was largely made up of members from the League itself; the few opposition lawmakers included [[Manabendra Narayan Larma]], who demanded the term "[[Bangladeshis|Bangladeshi]]" to describe the new country's citizens instead of "[[Bengalis|Bengali]]" since not all Bangladeshis were Bengalis.{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-153616 |title=Our constitution |first=Hana Shams |last=Ahmed |date=5 September 2010 |work=The Daily Star}} Critics argued that in reality "the Awami League sought to rule by Mujib's charisma and build a political process by dicta".{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/supplements/50-years-our-constitution-original-ideals-vs-reality/news/bangladesh-began-badly-remembering-the-roots-the-impasse-3160271 |title=Bangladesh began badly: Remembering the roots of the impasse |first=Salimullah |last=Khan |date=4 November 2022 |work=The Daily Star}} Mujib introduced a quota for backward regions to get access to public sector jobs. Bangladesh also faced a [[gun control]] problem because many of its guerrilla fighters from the Liberation War were roaming the country with guns. Mujib successfully called on former guerrillas to surrender their arms through public ceremonies which affirmed their status as freedom fighters during the Liberation War. The President's Relief and Welfare Fund was created to rehabilitate an estimated 10 million displaced Bangladeshis. Mujib established 11,000 new primary schools and nationalised 40,000 primary schools.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=xxvi}} ===Withdrawal of Indian troops=== One of Mujib's first priorities was the withdrawal of Indian troops from Bangladesh. Mujib requested the Indian government to ensure a swift withdrawal of Indian military forces from Bangladeshi territory. A timeline was drawn up for rapid withdrawal. The withdrawal took place within three months of the surrender of Pakistan to the allied forces of Bangladesh and India. A formal ceremony was held in Dhaka Stadium on 12 March 1972 in which Mujib inspected a guard of honour from the 1st [[Rajput Regiment]].{{cite news |url=https://www.nytimes.com/1972/03/13/archives/indias-soldiers-quit-bangladesh-ceremonies-in-dacca-mark-pullout.html |title=India's Soldiers Quit Bangladesh |work=The New York Times |date=13 March 1972}} The withdrawal of Indian forces was completed by 15 March.{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/backpage/news/indian-army-withdraws-bangladesh-1880827 |title=Indian Army withdraws from Bangladesh |first=Shamsuddoza |last=Sajen |date=15 March 2020 |work=The Daily Star}} Many countries established diplomatic relations with Bangladesh soon after the withdrawal of Indian troops.[https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-organization/article/making-the-real-rhetorical-adduction-and-the-bangladesh-liberation-war/D7396F6DFDE0914CD3C1C8D7A7141BF9 Making the Real: Rhetorical Adduction and the Bangladesh Liberation War | International Organization | Cambridge Core] India's intervention and subsequent withdrawal has been cited as a successful case of humanitarian intervention in international law. ===War criminals=== In 1972, Mujib told [[David Frost]] that he was a strong man but he had tears in his eyes when he saw pictures of the [[1971 Bangladesh genocide]].{{cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gHxL6hhY4fc |title=Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman with David Frost |via=YouTube}} He told Frost that "I am a very generous man. I always believe in forgive and forget but this is impossible on my part to forgive and forget. This was cold blooded murder in a planned way; [[genocide]] to kill my people. These people must be punished". Speaking about a potential war crimes trial, Mujib said "the world powers arranged the [[Nuremberg trial]]s against the war criminals of fascist Germany. I think they should come forward and there should be another trial or inquiry under the United Nations". Mujib pledged to hold a trial for those accused in wartime atrocities. An estimated 11,000 local collaborators of the Pakistan Army were arrested.{{cite news |url=https://en.prothomalo.com/bangladesh/Zia-freed-11-000-jailed-collaborators-Quamrul |title=Zia freed 11,000 jailed collaborators: Quamrul |work=Prothom Alo}} Their cases were heard by the Collaborators Tribunal.{{cite web |url=https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Collaborators_Tribunal_Order,_1972 |title=Collaborators Tribunal Order, 1972 |website=Banglapedia}} In 1973, the government introduced the International Crimes (Tribunal) Act to prosecute 195 Pakistani [[PoW]]s under Indian custody.{{cite web |url=https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl-nat.nsf/0/0618daaa2660e9b3c125771a00264b13/$FILE/International%20Crimes%20(Tribunals)%20Act,%201973%20(as%20amended%20in%202009).pdf |title=The International Crimes (Tribunals) Act, 1973 |website=International Humanitarian Law Databases |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20220901070144/https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl-nat.nsf/0/0618daaa2660e9b3c125771a00264b13/$FILE/International%20Crimes%20(Tribunals)%20Act,%201973%20(as%20amended%20in%202009).pdf |archive-date=1 September 2022}} In response, Pakistan filed a case against India at the International Court of Justice.{{cite web |url=https://www.icj-cij.org/public/files/case-related/60/9461.pdf |title=Case Concerning Trial of Pakistani Prisoners of War |website=International Court of Justice}} The [[Delhi Agreement]] struck a compromise between India, Pakistan and Bangladesh after the three countries agreed to transfer PoWs to Pakistani custody. However, the foreign minister of Bangladesh stated that "the excesses and manifold crimes committed by those prisoners of war constituted, according to the relevant provisions of the UN General Assembly resolutions and international law, [[war crime]]s, [[crimes against humanity]] and genocide, and that there was universal consensus that persons charged with such crimes as [the] 195 Pakistani prisoners of war should be held to account and subjected to the due process of law".{{cite web |url=https://www.genocidebangladesh.org/text-of-the-tri-patriate-agreement-of-bangladesh-pakistan-india/ |title=Text of the tri-patriate agreement of Bangladesh-Pakistan-India |date=2 March 2008}} In 1974, the Third International Criminal Law Conference was held at the [[Bangladesh Institute of Law and International Affairs]]; the meeting supported calls for the creation of an international penal court.{{cite web |url=https://library.biliabd.org/details/7204 |title=Bilia Home Page}} ===Economic policy=== Mujib declared [[socialism]] as a national policy. His land reforms restricted land ownership to less than 25 ''bighas'' of land which effectively ended all traces of the ''[[zamindar]]i'' system. Land owners with more than 25 ''bighas'' were subjected to taxes.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=xxvi }} Farmers had to sell their products at prices set by the government instead of the market. Mujib [[nationalised]] all banks, insurance companies, and 580 industrial plants.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=xxvi }} There was little foreign investment. The stock exchange remained closed. In 1974, the government sought to invite international oil companies to explore the [[Bay of Bengal]] for oil and natural gas. [[Royal Dutch Shell|Shell]] sold five gas fields to the Bangladeshi government which set the stage for the creation of [[Petrobangla]].{{cite news |url=https://www.newagebd.net/article/178014/national-energy-security-day-today |title=National Energy Security Day today |work=New Age}} The national airline [[Biman]] was set up with planes from [[British Caledonian]], the Indian government and the [[World Council of Churches]]. In the industrial sector, the Bangladeshi government built the Ghorashal Fertilizer Factory.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=xxvi }} Work began on the [[Ashuganj Power Station]]. Operations in the [[Port of Chittagong]] were restored after the [[Soviet Navy]] conducted a clearing operation for [[naval mine]]s.{{Cite news |url=https://www.daily-sun.com/post/615862/50-years-of-Soviet-naval-operation-in-Ctg-Port |title=50 years of Soviet naval operation in Ctg Port |work=Daily Sun}} Industrial activity was eventually restored to pre-1971 levels.{{cite web | url=https://whiteboardmagazine.com/471/mujibs-economic-policies-and-their-relevance-today/ | title=Mujib's economic policies and their relevance today | date=17 March 2020 }} Banking services rapidly expanded in rural areas. Mujib recruited CEOs from the private sector to run state-owned companies. The first Five Year Plan was adopted by the Planning Commission, which was headed by the Harvard-trained economist [[Nurul Islam (economist)|Nurul Islam]]. The Planning Commission sought to diversify Bangladesh's exports. In trade with India, the Planning Commission identified fertilizer, iron, cement and natural gas as potential export sectors in Bangladesh. The Planning Commission, with Mujib's approval, wanted to transform Bangladesh into a producer of value added products generated from imported Indian raw materials. In addition to state-owned firms, many private sector companies emerged, including the [[BEXIMCO|Bangladesh Export Import Company]] and [[Advanced Chemical Industries]]. These companies later became some of Bangladesh's biggest conglomerates. The Mujib government faced serious challenges, which included the resettlement of millions of people displaced in 1971, organisation of food supply, health services and other necessities. The effects of the 1970 cyclone had not worn off, and the economy of Bangladesh had immensely deteriorated due to the conflict.Lawrence B. Lesser. "Economic Reconstruction after Independence". [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/bdtoc.html ''A Country Study: Bangladesh''] (James Heitzman and Robert Worden, editors). [[Federal Research Division]], Library of Congress (September 1988). ''This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.''[http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/about.html About the Country Studies / Area Handbooks Program: Country Studies – Federal Research Division, Library of Congress] In 1973, thousands of Bengalis arrived from Pakistan while many non-Bengali industrialists and capitalists emigrated; poorer non-Bengalis were stranded in refugee camps. Major efforts were launched to help an estimated 10 million former refugees who returned from India. The economy began to recover eventually.{{cite journal |last=Jahan |first=Rounaq |author-link=Rounaq Jahan |date=February 1973 |title=Bangladesh in 1972: Nation Building in a New State |journal=Asian Survey |volume=13 |issue=2 |pages=199–210 |jstor=2642736 |doi=10.2307/2642736}} The five-year plan released in 1973 focused state investments into agriculture and cottage industries.{{cite web |last=Farid |first=Shah Mohammad |title=Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Social Sector Development into the Planning Process in Bangladesh |url=http://www.unescap.org/drpad/publication/ldc6_2174/chap4.PDF |website=UNESCAP |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080227002742/http://www.unescap.org/drpad/publication/ldc6_2174/chap4.PDF |archive-date=27 February 2008 |access-date=7 July 2006}} But a [[Bangladesh famine of 1974|famine]] occurred in 1974 when the price of rice rose sharply. In that month there was widespread starvation in [[Rangpur district]]. Government mismanagement was blamed.{{cite book |title=Poverty and famines: An essay and entitlement and deprivation |year=1982 |publisher=Oxford University Press |page=138 |last=Sen |first=Amratya}}{{cite book |title=Limits of Islamism |last=Maidul Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=172 |year=2015 |isbn=978-1107080263}} Many of Mujib's disastrous socialist policies were eventually overturned by future governments. The five years of his regime marked the only intensely socialist period in Bangladesh's history. Successive governments de-emphasised socialism and promoted a market economy. By the 1990s, the Awami League returned to being a centre-left party in economics. ===Legal reforms=== The [[Constitution of Bangladesh]] became the first Bengali [[written constitution]] in modern history. The Awami League introduced a new [[bill of rights]], which was more broad and expansive than the laws of East and West Pakistan.{{cite web | url=https://legal.un.org/avl/faculty/Hossain.html | title=AVL Faculty: Dr. Kamal Hossain }} In addition to freedom of speech and freedom of religion, the new constitution emphasized property rights, the right to privacy, the prohibition of torture, safeguards during detention and trial, the prohibition of forced labor, and freedom of association.{{cite web | url=http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/act-367.html | title=The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh }} The Awami League repealed many controversial laws of the Pakistani period, including the Public Safety Act and Defense of Pakistan Rules. [[Women's rights]] received more attention than before. Discrimination on grounds of religion, ethnicity, gender, place of birth or disability was discouraged.{{cite web | url=http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/act-367/section-24576.html | title=The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh | 28. Discrimination on grounds of religion, etc }} ===Secularism=== {{Main|Secularism in Bangladesh}} While Pakistan adopted progressive reforms to Muslim family law as early as 1961,{{cite news |url=https://www.dawn.com/news/1355171 |title=Special report: The Changing of the Guard 1958–1969 |work=Dawn |date=2 September 2017}} Bangladesh became the first constitutionally secular state in South Asia in 1972 when its newly adopted constitution included the word "secularism" for the first time in the region.{{Cite web |url=https://institute.global/policy/struggle-soul-bangladesh |title=Struggle for the Soul of Bangladesh |website=Institute for Global Change}} Despite the constitution's proclamation of secularism as a state policy, Mujib banned "anti-Islamic" activities, including gambling, horse racing and alcohol. He established the [[Islamic Foundation Bangladesh|Islamic Foundation]] to regulate religious affairs for Muslims, including the collection of ''[[zakat]]'' and setting dates for religious observances like Eid and Ramadan.{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=xxvi }} Under Mujib, Bangladesh joined the [[Organization of the Islamic Conference]] (OIC) in 1974. Bangladesh was not the only Muslim-majority secular republic in the OIC; others included [[Turkey]] and Nigeria. Secularism was later removed from the constitution by the military dictatorship in the late 1970s. Secularism was reinstated by the Supreme Court into the constitution in 2010.{{Cite news |date=5 October 2010 |title=Secularism is back in Bangladesh, rules High Court |url=https://www.deccanherald.com/content/102192/secularism-back-bangladesh-rules-high.html |access-date=8 November 2022 |work=Deccan Herald |language=en}} Mujib said "secularism doesn't mean irreligiosity. Hindus will practice their religion; Muslims will practice their religion; Christians, Buddhists - everyone will practice their respective religions. No one will interfere in someone else's religion; the people of Bengal do not seek to interfere in matters of religion. Religion will not be used for political purposes. Religion will not be exploited in Bengal for political gain. If anyone does so, I believe the people of Bengal will retaliate against them". ===Foreign policy=== [[File:Mujib and Ford.jpg|thumb|250px|Mujib with U.S. President [[Gerald Ford]] at the [[Oval Office]] in 1974]] In the early 1970s, Sheikh Mujib emerged as one of the most charismatic leaders of the [[third world]].{{cite journal | url=https://airccse.com/ijhas/abstract/5420ijhas04.html | title=Sheikh Mujibur Rahman: Charismatic Leader of Bangladesh | journal=International Journal of Humanities, Art and Social Studies (Ijhas) | date=30 November 2020 | volume=5 | issue=4 | page=21 | last1=Hossain | first1=Md Read | last2=Ulfat | first2=Tasnova Jerin | last3=Hossain | first3=Md Read | last4=Ulfat | first4=Tasnova Jerin }}{{cite web | url=http://www.uplbooks.com/book/third-world-charismat-sheikh-mujib-and-struggle-freedom | title=The Third World Charismat: Sheikh Mujib and the Struggle for Freedom | the University Press Limited }} His foreign policy maxim was "friendship to all, malice to none".{{cite web | url=https://whiteboardmagazine.com/346/friendship-towards-all-was-a-masterstroke/ | title=Friendship towards all was a masterstroke | date=17 March 2020 }} Mujib's priorities were to secure aid for reconstruction and relief efforts; normalizing diplomatic relations with the world; and joining major international organizations. Mujib's major foreign policy achievement was to secure normalisation and [[diplomatic relations]] with most countries of the world. Bangladesh joined the [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]], the [[UN]], the [[OIC]], and the [[Non-Aligned Movement]].{{cite web|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/backpage/news/bangladesh-enters-commonwealth-1894048|title=Bangladesh enters Commonwealth|website=www.thedailystar.net|date=18 April 2020 }}{{Cite web|url=https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/original/00002565.pdf|title=ADMISSION OF BANGLADESH TO THE COMMONWEALTH - STATEMENT BY THE PRIME MINISTER, THE RT HON WILLIAM MCMAHON CH MP|website=pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au}}{{cite web|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-96760|title=Non-aligned conference and Bangladesh|website=www.thedailystar.net|date=13 July 2009 }}{{cite journal | url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/41393199 | jstor=41393199 | title=The Second Islamic Summit Conference, 1974 | last1=Ali | first1=Mehrunnisa | journal=Pakistan Horizon | date=20 August 1974 | volume=27 | issue=1 | pages=29–49 }} His allies included Prime Minister [[Indira Gandhi]] of India and [[Marshal Tito]] of [[Yugoslavia]].{{cite book |last=Uddin |first=Sufia M. |year=2006 |title=Constructing Bangladesh: Religion, Ethnicity, and Language in an Islamic Nation |page=137 |publisher=Univ of North Carolina Press |isbn=978-0-8078-3021-5}}{{cite web | url=https://dailyasianage.com/news/200799/recalling-bangabandhu-in-belgrade | title=Recalling Bangabandhu in Belgrade | the Asian Age Online, Bangladesh }}{{Cite web|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news/bangladesh/news/tito-calls-political-solution-bangladesh-problem-2202366|title=Tito calls for political solution to Bangladesh problem|website=www.thedailystar.net|date=20 October 2021 }} [[Japan]] became a major aid provider to the new country. Mujib attended Commonwealth summits in [[Canada]] and [[Jamaica]], where he held talks with [[Queen Elizabeth II]], British Prime Minister [[Harold Wilson]], Canadian Prime Minister [[Pierre Trudeau]] and New Zealand Prime Minister [[Norman Kirk]].[[Kamal Hossain]], ''Bangladesh: Quest for Freedom and Justice'', p. 171-197{{cite news |url=https://www.bssnews.net/news-flash/81571 |title=PM mourns demise of Queen Elizabeth II |work=Bangladesh Sangbad Sangstha}} The [[Soviet Union]] supplied several squadrons of [[MiG-21]] planes for the Bangladesh Air Force.{{sfn|Heitzman|Library of Congress|Nyrop|Worden|1989|pages=226,234}} [[China]] initially blocked Bangladesh's entry to the UN in 1972, but withdrew its veto in 1974 which allowed Bangladesh to join the UN. The [[United States]] recognized the independence of Bangladesh on 4 April 1972 and pledged US$300 million in aid.{{cite news |title=U.S. Strives to Improve Relations with Bangladesh |first=Phil |last=Newsom |date=1 June 1972 |url=https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=bLEiAAAAIBAJ&sjid=PbMFAAAAIBAJ&pg=5951,588675&dq=bangladesh+embassy+united+states&hl=en |newspaper=Beaver County Times |location=Beaver, Pennsylvania, USA |agency=United Press International }}{{cite news |date=5 April 1972 |title=U.S. recognizes Bangladesh |url=https://www.proquest.com/docview/494346155/ |newspaper=Chicago Daily Defender |agency= United Press International |page= 14}} Britain, Malaysia, Indonesia, West Germany, Denmark, Norway and Sweden were among the several countries which recognized Bangladesh in February 1972.[[Kamal Hossain]], ''Bangladesh: Quest for Freedom and Justice'' (UPL) p. 171-197{{cite news | url=https://www.nytimes.com/1972/02/05/archives/british-establish-bangladesh-ties-west-germany-israel-and-7-others.html | title=BRITISH ESTABLISH BANGLADESH TIES (Published 1972) | work=The New York Times | date=5 February 1972 }} ====Africa==== Mujib was a firm opponent of [[apartheid]]. In his first speech to the [[United Nations General Assembly]] in 1974, Mujib remarked that "In spite of the acceleration of the process of abolishing colonialism, it hasn't reached its ultimate goal. This is more strongly true of Africa, where the people of [[Rhodesia]] and [[Namibia]] are still engaged in the final struggle for national independence and absolute freedom. Although racism has been identified as a serious offence in this council, it's still destroying the conscience of the people".{{Cite news |url=https://www.theindependentbd.com/post/253673 |title=Bangabandhu's historic 1974 UN speech |work=The Independent |location=Dhaka}}{{Cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bzpb14fl73M |title=25th September 1974 Speech in UN by Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman |via=YouTube}} This was the first speech in the UN General Assembly to be spoken in [[Bengali language|Bengali]]. Bangladesh joined the Non Aligned Movement (NAM) during the [[4th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement]] in [[Algiers]].{{Cite web|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-96760|title=Non-aligned conference and Bangladesh|website=www.thedailystar.net|date=13 July 2009 }}{{cite web | url=https://www.newagebd.net/article/119336/bangladesh-a-strong-supporter-of-non-aligned-movement | title=Bangladesh: A strong supporter of Non-Aligned Movement }} Mujib told Nigerian leader [[Yakubu Gowon]] that "if we had remained in Pakistan, it would be a strong country. Again, if India had not been divided in 1947, it would be an even stronger country. But, then, Mr. President, in life do we always get what we desire?".{{cite web|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/magazine/2009/08/02/tribute.htm|title=The statesman in Bangabandhu|website=www.thedailystar.net}} The comment was in response to Gowon questioning the need for the break up of Pakistan.{{cite web | url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-177836 | title=Bangabandhu was our Druid | date=16 March 2011 }} Mujib met Zambian leader [[Kenneth Kaunda]] and Senegalese president [[Léopold Sédar Senghor]].{{cite web | url=https://mujib100.gov.bd/pages/mujib/photo-archive.html | title=Photo Archive | 100 Years of Mujib }} He developed a good rapport with President [[Anwar Sadat]] of Egypt, who gifted 30 tanks to the Bangladeshi military in return for Mujib's support to Egypt.{{sfn|Heitzman|Library of Congress|Nyrop|Worden|1989|page=226}}{{cite news |title=The Way an Egyptian Tank Was Used in Mujib's Assassination |url=https://en.shampratikdeshkal.com/bangladesh/news/200810067/the-way-an-egyptian-tank-was-used-in-mujibs-assassination |access-date=9 September 2023 |work=Shampratik Deshkal English}}{{cite web |title=Trade Registers |url=https://armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/page/trade_register.php |website=armstrade.sipri.org |publisher=Stockholm International Peace Research Institute |access-date=9 September 2023}} Algerian president [[Houari Boumédiène]] brought Mujib to the [[Organization of Islamic Cooperation|OIC Summit]] in Lahore on his plane. ====Middle East==== [[File:OIC Leaders in Shalimar Gardens, Lahore.jpg|thumb|Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (center) with Algerian President [[Houari Boumédiène]] (far-left), Pakistani Prime Minister [[Zulfikar Ali Bhutto]] (left), and [[Sultan bin Abdulaziz|Prince Sultan of Saudi Arabia]] (right) at the [[Shalimar Gardens, Lahore]].]] While addressing the UN General Assembly in 1974, Mujib said "injustice is still rampant in many parts of the world. Our Arab brothers are still fighting for the complete eviction of the invaders from their land. The equitable national rights of the [[Palestinian people]] have not yet been achieved". While [[Israel]] was one of the first countries to recognize Bangladesh,{{cite book |last=Husain |first=Syed Anwar |chapter=Bangladesh and Islamic Countries, 1972–1983 |year=1990 |editor-last1=Tepper |editor-first1=Elliot L. |editor-last2=Hayes |editor-first2=Glen A. |title=Bengal and Bangladesh: Politics and Culture on the Golden Delta |publisher=Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University |page=103 |quote="In April 1972, Israel also extended recognition to Bangladesh."}} the Mujib government dispatched an army medical unit to support Arab countries during the [[Arab-Israeli War of 1973]].{{Cite web|url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/amp/opinion/op-ed/244471/op-ed-a-champion-of-peace-freedom-and-humanity|title=OP-ED: A champion of peace, freedom, and humanity|author=Dr Rounaq Jahan|date=10 April 2021|website=www.dhakatribune.com}} This was Bangladesh's first dispatch of military aid overseas.{{cite web|url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/320335/bangladesh%E2%80%99s-palestine-policy|title=Bangladesh's Palestine policy|first=Umran|last=Chowdhury|date=14 July 2023|website=www.dhakatribune.com}} [[Kuwait]] sent its foreign minister [[Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah]] to persuade Mujib to join the OIC Summit in Lahore in 1974.{{Cite news |url=https://www.daily-sun.com/post/468598/President-of-Algeria-in-Dhaka |title=President of Algeria in Dhaka |work=Daily Sun}}{{cite web | url=https://www.daily-sun.com/post/463468/Bangabandhu-at-OIC-Summit-in-Lahore | title=Bangabandhu at OIC Summit in Lahore | Daily Sun | | date=February 2020 }} The [[Lebanon|Lebanese]] foreign minister accompanied Sabah during the visit to Dhaka.[[Kamal Hossain]], ''Bangladesh: Quest for Freedom and Justice'', p. 233 Bangladesh enjoyed strong relations with the secular Arab government of [[Iraq]].https://www.britishpathe.com/asset/200210/https://www.daily-sun.com/printversion/details/510481/Bangabandhu-in-Iraq Mujib had a warm rapport with [[Sheikh Zayed]] of the [[United Arab Emirates|UAE]], with the two men joking about their names.https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-198705 Egyptian president Anwar Sadat visited Bangladesh on 25 February 1974 to thank Mujib for his support during the 1973 war.https://www.britishpathe.com/asset/113351/ Sadat became a close friend of Mujib.https://www.daily-sun.com/post/465158/Anwar-Sadat%E2%80%99s-Sojourn-in-Dhaka- Algerian president Houari Boumédiène was instrumental in getting Bangladesh into the OIC. Mujib met with [[Takieddin el-Solh]], the Prime Minister of Lebanon.https://bangabandhumuseum.org.bd/en/gallery/details/52/21 He also met [[Hafez Al Assad]], the President of [[Syria]].https://bangabandhumuseum.org.bd/en/gallery/details/51/21 Mujib visited Iraq, Egypt, and Algeria. During his trip to Iraq, crowds of several thousand Iraqis welcomed him on the streets of [[Baghdad]], Karbala and Babylon.https://www.daily-sun.com/printversion/details/510481/Bangabandhu-in-Iraq ====South Asia==== Mujib and Indira Gandhi signed the 25-year [[Indo-Bangladeshi Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Peace]].{{sfn|Frank|2001|p=343}}{{cite journal |last=Shamim |first=Choudhury M. |year=2001 |title=The Bangladesh-India Friendship Treaty: A Critical Analysis |url=https://archive.org/stream/BangladeshIndiaTreaty/bangladesh_djvu.txt |journal=Journal of Bangladesh Studies |volume=3 |issue=1 |pages=1–14}} India and Bangladesh developed extremely cordial relations based on shared political values, a common nonaligned worldview and cultural solidarity. In February 1972, Mujib visited the Indian city of [[Kolkata]] in West Bengal to thank the people of India for their support during the liberation war. Mujib was immensely popular in India. Many of India's leading film directors, singers, writers, actors and actresses came to meet with Mujib, including [[Satyajit Ray]], [[Hemanta Mukherjee]] and [[Hema Malini]].{{cite web | url=https://indianexpress.com/article/research/bangladesh-independence-day-sheikh-mujibur-rahman-photographs-5111723/ | title=On Bangladesh independence day, rare photographs of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman with Indian personalities | date=26 March 2018 }} In Pakistan, a constitutional amendment was passed to establish diplomatic relations with Bangladesh.Raza, Syed Rasul (2008). Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto; The Architect of New Pakistan. Karachi, Sindh Province, Pakistan: Printwise publication. ISBN 978-969-8500-00-9. p. 15-17 In the [[Delhi Agreement]] of 1974, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan pledged to work for regional stability and peace. The agreement paved the way for the return of interned Bengali officials and their families stranded in Pakistan, as well as the establishment of diplomatic [[Bangladesh-Pakistan relations|relations between Bangladesh and Pakistan]].{{sfn|Ahmed|1983|pp=202–205}} However, Bangladesh had to concede on the issue of putting 195 Pakistani [[PoW]]s on trial for war crimes, after the three countries agreed by consensus to transfer the 195 PoWs to Pakistani custody.[[Kamal Hossain]], ''Bangladesh: Quest for Freedom and Justice'' (UPL) p. 217-259 Mujib and Gandhi also signed a Land Boundary Treaty concerning the [[India-Bangladesh enclaves]]. The treaty was challenged in court.{{Cite web |url=http://lawsden.info/2020/05/10/berubari-case-the-third-amendment-in-the-constitution-of-bangladesh/ |title=Berubari Case: The Third Amendment in the Constitution of Bangladesh}}{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/law-our-rights/news/50-years-bangladesh-constitution-nutshell-3160281 |title=50 Years of Bangladesh Constitution In a nutshell |first1=Parban |last1=Chakma |first2=Rafid Azad |last2=Saumik |date=4 November 2022 |work=The Daily Star}} The government attempted to ratify the treaty without consulting parliament. Chief Justice [[Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem]] ruled that parliament had to ratify the treaty in accordance with the constitution, otherwise the government's actions were illegal and unconstitutional. The Chief Justice dissented with the government's actions. The treaty was subsequently ratified by parliament. In his decision, Justice Sayem referred to the [[Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties]].Kazi Mukhlesur Rahman v Bangladesh and Others (1974) 26 DLR (AD) 44 The land boundary treaty was finally implemented in 2015.{{Cite news |url=https://www.hindustantimes.com/india/history-at-midnight-india-bangladesh-exchange-enclaves/story-gLtjOSQWFhbnCFsR0S1RaI.html |title=History at midnight: India, Bangladesh exchange enclaves |date=31 July 2015 |work=Hindustan Times}} ===Left-wing insurgency=== {{Main|Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini}} At the height of Mujib's power, left-wing insurgents from the [[Gonobahini]] fought against Mujib's government to establish a [[Marxist]] government.{{cite news |title=JS sees debate over role of Gono Bahini |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/js-sees-debate-over-role-of-gono-bahini-31691 |newspaper=The Daily Star |access-date=9 July 2015}}{{cite news |title=Rizvi now blasts Inu at press briefing |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/politics/rizvi-now-blasts-inu-press-briefing-1240042 |newspaper=The Daily Star |agency=UNB |date=15 June 2016 |access-date=12 July 2016}} The government responded by forming an elite paramilitary force called [[Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini]] on 8 February 1972. Many within the Bangladeshi military viewed the new paramilitary force with suspicion.{{cite book |author1=Bangladesh |last2=Hossain |first2=Hamza |last3=Kamrul Islam |first3=A. T. M |date=1974 |title=Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini Act |url={{GBurl|id=zGIKAQAAIAAJ}}}}{{Cite book |url=http://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/p33231/pdf/ch0731.pdf |title=The military and democracy in Bangladesh |last=Ahamed |first=Emajuddin |publisher=Australian National University Press |year=2004 |location=Sydney |pages=108–110}} The new paramilitary force was responsible for [[human rights abuses]] against the general populace, including [[extrajudicial killing]]s,{{cite web |url=https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/bangladesh0509webwcover.pdf |title=Ignoring Executions and Torture : Impunity for Bangladesh's Security Forces |date=18 March 2009 |publisher=Human Rights Watch |access-date=16 August 2013}}{{cite news |script-title=bn:রক্ষীবাহিনীর নৃশংসতা মধ্যযুগীয় বর্বরতাকেও হার মানিয়েছিল |url=http://www.amardeshonline.com/pages/details/2011/01/15/63217 |newspaper=Amar Desh |language=bn |date=16 January 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110117040756/http://www.amardeshonline.com/pages/details/2011/01/15/63217 |archive-date=17 January 2011}} shootings by [[death squads]],{{cite news |last1=Chowdhury |first1=Atif |date=18 February 2013 |title=Bangladesh: Baptism By Fire |url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/atif-choudhury/bangladesh-no-justice-wit_b_4455782.html |newspaper=HuffPost |access-date=12 July 2016}} and rape.{{cite book |last1=Fair |first1=Christine C. |last2=Riaz |first2=Ali |title=Political Islam and Governance in Bangladesh |date=2010 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1136926242 |pages=30–31 |url={{GBurl|id=SpFaBwAAQBAJ|q=Rape by Rakkhi Bahini|p=30}} |access-date=19 June 2016}} Members of the Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini were granted immunity from prosecution and other legal proceedings.{{cite journal |last=Maniruzzaman |first=Talukder |date=February 1976 |title=Bangladesh in 1975: The Fall of the Mujib Regime and Its Aftermath |journal=Asian Survey |volume=16 |issue=2 |pages=119–129 |doi=10.2307/2643140 |jstor=2643140}}{{cite web |last=Country Studies |first=Bangladesh |date=12 September 2006 |url=http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/19.htm |title=Mujib's fall |access-date=12 September 2006}} The force swore an oath of loyalty to Mujib.{{cite book |last=Pike |first=Francis |year=2011 |title=Empires at War: A Short History of Modern Asia Since World War II |publisher=I.B. Tauris |page=569 |isbn=978-1848850798}} ===One-party state=== {{further|Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League|Second Revolution (Bangladesh)}} Mujib's political philosophy dramatically changed in 1975. Elections were approaching in 1977 after the end of his five-year term. Mujib sensed growing dissatisfaction with his regime. He changed the constitution, declared himself president, and established a [[one party state]]. Ahrar Ahmed, commenting in ''[[The Daily Star (Bangladesh)|The Daily Star]]'', noted that "Drastic changes were introduced through the adoption of the 4th amendment on Jan[uary] 25, 1975, which radically shifted the initial focus of the constitution and turned it into a single-party, [p]residential system, which curtailed the powers of the [p]arliament and the [j]udiciary, as well as the space for free speech or public assembly".{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/supplements/50-years-our-constitution-original-ideals-vs-reality/news/constitutional-supremacy-the-dangers-within-3160241 |title=Constitutional supremacy: The dangers within |first=Ahrar |last=Ahmad |date=4 November 2022 |work=The Daily Star}} Censorship was imposed in the press. Civil society groups like the [[Committee for Civil Liberties and Legal Aid]] were suppressed. The [[Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League]] (BAKSAL), meaning the "Bangladesh Farmers Workers Peoples League", became the only legal political party. Bureaucrats and military officers were ordered to join the single party. These actions profoundly impacted Mujib's legacy. Many Bangladeshis opposed to the Awami League cite his creation of BAKSAL as the ultimate hypocrisy. The one party state lasted for 7 months till Mujib's [[Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman|assassination]] on 15 August 1975. == Assassination == {{Main|Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman|15 August 1975 Bangladesh coup d'état|Indemnity Ordinance, 1975}} [[File:Secretary Kerry Looks at Stars Where a Founder was Gunned Down in Dhaka (28692593883).jpg|thumb|The staircase where Mujib was assassinated]] [[File:Indemnity Act (Bangladesh).jpg|thumb|The [[Indemnity Ordinance]] shielded Mujib's assassins from prosecution for 26 years. It was repealed in 1996.]] Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was killed along with most of his family in his [[Bangabandhu Memorial Museum|private home]] on 15 August 1975 during a military coup by renegade army officers.{{cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news/frontpage/bloodbath-road-32-1621003 |title=15 August 1975: Bloodbath on road 32 |work=Daily Star |date=15 August 2018 |access-date=5 November 2022}} His wife, three sons, two daughters-in-law, and a host of other relatives, personal staff, and a brigadier general of the Bangladesh Army were killed as part of the coup.{{cite news |url=https://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/bangabandhu-appeals/factbox-aug-15-victims |title=FACTBOX: Aug 15 victims |work=bdnews24.com}} Mujib was shot on the staircase of his house.{{cite web|url=https://www.tbsnews.net/bangladesh/mournful-day-681882|title=The Mournful Day|website=www.tbsnews.net|date=13 August 2023 }} After the coup, four allies of Mujib who led the [[Provisional Government of Bangladesh]] in 1971 were arrested and eventually [[Jail Killing Day|executed]] on 3 November 1975. A [[martial law]] regime was established. Mujib's killers included fifteen junior army officers with ranks of [[colonel]]s, majors, lieutenants and havildars. They were backed up by Awami League politician [[Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad]], who usurped the presidency. On the day of the coup, the junior officers ordered their soldiers to take over the national radio and television stations. The army chief [[K. M. Shafiullah]] was caught unaware and failed to stop the coup. According to American [[Investigative journalism|investigative journalist]] Lawrence Lifschultz, the army's deputy chief [[Ziaur Rahman]] was approached by the coup plotters and expressed interest in the proposed coup plan, but refused to become the public face of the coup.{{Cite web|url=https://www.tbsnews.net/bangladesh/zia-was-one-bangabandhu-killing-masterminds-researchers-122071|title=Zia was one of Bangabandhu killing masterminds: Researchers|website=www.tbsnews.net|date=20 August 2020 }}{{cite book |url={{GBurl|id=VoZ0QgAACAAJ}} |title=Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood - Anthony Mascarenhas |isbn=9780340394205 |access-date=5 November 2022 |last1=Mascarenhas |first1=Anthony |year=1986|page=88|publisher=Hodder and Stoughton }}{{Cite web|url=https://sanipanhwar.com/Bangladesh%20A%20Legacy%20of%20Blood.pdf|title=Bangladesh A Legacy of Blood|website=sanipanhwar.com}} Zia did not deny meeting with the coup plotters, according to [[Anthony Mascarenhas]]. Zia was legally obliged to prevent a mutiny against the country's legally appointed president but did not stop the impending mutiny despite having knowledge of it.[[Anthony Mascarenhas]], Chapter V: A Summer of Tigers, ''[[Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood]]'' p. 73 Zia eventually emerged as the dictator of Bangladesh after the coup. The only survivors from Mujib's family were his daughters [[Sheikh Hasina]] and [[Sheikh Rehana]], who were visiting Hasina's physicist husband in [[West Germany]] at the time. On 26 September 1975, the martial law regime introduced the [[Indemnity Ordinance, 1975]], which gave legal immunity to all persons involved in the coup of 15 August 1975. Mujib was warned about a possible coup by [[Research and Analysis Wing|Indian intelligence]].{{cite news |url=https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/sheikh-mujibur-rahman-had-ignored-raw-alert-ahead-of-bloody-1975-coup/articleshow/48483920.cms?from=mdr |title=Sheikh Mujibur Rahman had ignored RAW alert ahead of bloody 1975 coup |work=The Economic Times |access-date=5 November 2022}}{{cite news |url=https://www.tbsnews.net/bangladesh/sheikh-mujibur-rahman-indian-perspective-217738 |title=Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, from an Indian perspective |work=The Business Standard |date=17 March 2021}} Mujib shrugged off these warnings by saying his own people would never hurt him.{{cite news |url=https://archive.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2021/08/15/coup-plotters-were-looking-for-a-stalking-horse |title=August 15: Coup plotters were looking for a stalking horse |work=Dhaka Tribune |date=14 August 2021}} His assassins continued to enjoy immunity from prosecution for 26 years. The Indemnity Ordinance was repealed in 1996 after his daughter Sheikh Hasina was elected as Prime Minister. Hasina subsequently initiated a murder case in the courts of Bangladesh. Several of the fifteen assassins, including coup leader [[Syed Faruque Rahman]], were arrested and put on trial. Others like [[Khandaker Abdur Rashid]] became fugitives. The fifteen were given the death penalty by a court in 1998.{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/721941.stm |title=Call to execute Bangladesh assassins |work=BBC News |date=21 April 2000 |access-date=5 November 2022}} Five of the convicts were hanged in 2010.{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8483988.stm |title=Bangladesh hangs killers of independence leader Mujib |work=BBC News |date=27 January 2010 |access-date=5 November 2022}} A sixth convict was hanged in 2020.{{cite news |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-52258557 |title=Sheikh Mujibur Rahman: Army officer hanged for murder of Bangladesh's founding president |work=BBC News |access-date=5 November 2022}} Of the remaining fugitives, a few have died or are in hiding. In 2022, the Bangladeshi government reported that five fugitives are still on the run, including coup leader Rashid.{{cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news/bangladesh/news/little-progress-bringing-them-back-3095336 |title=5 fugitive killers of Bangabandhu: Little progress in bringing them back |work=The Daily Star |date=15 August 2022 |access-date=5 November 2022}} One of the convicted assassins is living in Canada.{{cite news |url=https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2011/02/17/convicted_assassin_living_freely_in_etobicoke.html |title=Convicted assassin living freely in Etobicoke |work=Toronto Star |date=17 February 2011}} One of the convicts is living in the United States.{{cite web |url=https://www.politico.com/news/2020/07/24/rashed-chowdhury-asylum-death-sentence-381075 |title=He thought he had asylum. Now, he could face a death sentence |website=Politico|date=24 July 2020 }} Bangladesh has requested Canada and the United States to deport the fugitives following the precedent set by the deportation of [[A.K.M. Mohiuddin Ahmed]] in 2007.{{Cite news |url=https://www.voabangla.com/a/a-16-2007-06-17-voa1-94419064/1394502.html |title=Bangabandhu's Convicted Killer Muhiuddin deported from US |work=VOA Bangla}} ==Family== {{further|Sheikh–Wazed family}} [[File:Bangabandhu & Bangamata.jpg|thumb|upright|Mujib and [[Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib|Begum Mujib]] in 1947]] Mujib was eighteen years old when he married eight years old [[Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib|Fazilatunnesa]], who is widely known in Bangladesh as Begum Mujib. They are second cousins.{{Cite web |url=http://www.londoni.co/index.php/who-s-who?id=68 |title=Fazlur Rahman (F. R.) Khan |website=londoni.co}}{{sfn|Mujibur Rahman|2012|p=7}}{{cite web|url=https://www.tbsnews.net/thoughts/begum-fazilatunnessa-mujib-woman-moral-power-473730|title=Begum Fazilatunnessa Mujib . . . woman of moral power|website=www.tbsnews.net|date=8 August 2022 }}{{Cite web|url=https://www.newagebd.net/article/208935/bup-observes-birth-anniv-of-begum-mujib|title=BUP observes birth anniv of Begum Mujib|date=9 August 2023}} Together they had two daughters—[[Sheikh Hasina]] and [[Sheikh Rehana]]—and three sons—[[Sheikh Kamal]], [[Sheikh Jamal]], and Sheikh Rasel.{{sfn|Kādira|2004|p=440}} Kamal was an organiser of the Mukti Bahini guerrilla struggle in 1971 and received a [[Battlefield promotion|wartime commission]] in the Bangladesh Army during the Liberation War.[http://dailyasianage.com/news/78103/sheikh-kamal Sheikh Kamal] ''[[The Asian Age]]''. 5 August 2017 Jamal was trained at the [[Royal Military Academy Sandhurst]] in Great Britain and later joined the [[Bangladesh Army]] as a [[Commissioned Officer#Commissioned officers|Commissioned Officer]].{{cite web |url=http://www.bongobondhuinfocenter.org/personal-life/sheikh-jamal |title=Sheikh Jamal |access-date=24 January 2017 |archive-date=18 August 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180818201320/http://www.bongobondhuinfocenter.org/personal-life/sheikh-jamal |url-status=dead }}{{cite web |url=http://www.albd.org/bangabandhu/August15Show.pps |title=Sheikh Jamal profile |publisher=Bangladesh Awami League |access-date=2 September 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091104093255/http://www.albd.org/bangabandhu/August15Show.pps |archive-date=4 November 2009}}{{Cite book |url={{GBurl|id=w_ptAAAAMAAJ}} |title=Bangabandhu in the eye of his personal physician |last1=Islam |first1=N. |last2=Trust |first2=Anwara-Nur Welfare |date=1 January 2001 |publisher=Anwara-Nur Welfare Trust |page=115 |language=en}}{{sfn|Gupta|1981|p=5}} The [[Sheikh–Wazed family|Sheikh family]] was under house arrest during the Bangladesh Liberation War until 17 December,{{cite news |title=Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib's 81st birth anniversary today |url=http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=197727 |newspaper=The Daily Star |date=8 August 2011 |access-date=10 February 2016 |archive-date=15 February 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160215115255/http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=197727 |url-status=dead }} Sheikh Kamal and Jamal found the means to escape and cross over to a liberated zone, where they joined the struggle to free the country. Almost the entire Sheikh family was assassinated on 15 August 1975 during a military coup d'état. Only [[Sheikh Hasina]] and [[Sheikh Rehana]], who were visiting [[West Germany]], survived. Mujib is the maternal grandfather of [[Tulip Siddiq]], British MP{{cite news |url=http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/01/uk-vote-could-create-cross-border-dynasty-2014113112342206325.html |title=UK vote could create cross-border dynasty |publisher=Al Jazeera}} for Hampstead and Kilburn since the 2015 UK general election.{{cite web |url=http://www.camdennewjournal.com/tulipsiddiq-owensmith |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160904145159/http://www.camdennewjournal.com/tulipsiddiq-owensmith |url-status=dead |archive-date=4 September 2016 |title=Hampstead and Kilburn MP Tulip Siddiq set to back Owen Smith in Labour leadership contest |website=Camden New Journal |access-date=24 January 2017}} [[Sajeeb Wazed]] is his eldest grandson. == Legacy == {{See also|List of artistic depictions of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman|List of things named after Sheikh Mujibur Rahman}} [[File:বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান এর সমাধিসৌধ.jpg|thumb|300px|[[Mausoleum of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman]]]] [[File:5ec851e1db4fe8.36203996-original.jpg|thumb|300px|100 [[Bangladeshi taka|taka]] banknote honoring Mujib, issued 1972]] [[File:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 2020 stamp of India.jpg|upright|thumb|Bangladesh's neighbour India released a postage stamp to mark [[Mujib Year]] in 2020]] [[File:Bangladesh Air Force Formation Flight (Fly Past) to Celebrate The Birth Centenary of Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.jpg|thumb|[[Bangladesh Air Force]] Formation Flight during celebration of [[Mujib Year|Mujib's Birth Centenary]] on 17 March 2021]] In 2004, listeners of the [[BBC Bangla]] radio service ranked Mujib first among the ''[[Greatest Bengali of all time|20 Greatest Bengalis]]'', ahead of Asia's first Nobel laureate [[Rabindranath Tagore]]; Bangladesh's national poet [[Kazi Nazrul Islam]]; and other Bengali icons like [[Subhash Chandra Bose]], [[Amartya Sen]], [[Titumir]], [[Begum Rokeya]], [[Muhammad Yunus]], and [[Ziaur Rahman]].{{Cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3623345.stm |title=Listeners name 'greatest Bengali' |date=14 April 2004 |publisher=BBC}} The survey was modelled on the BBC's ''[[100 Greatest Britons]]'' poll. In 2011, the [[parliament of Bangladesh]] passed the [[Amendments to the Constitution of Bangladesh|15th amendment]] to the country's constitution which referred to Mujib as the "Father of the Nation" in attached fifth, sixth, and seventh schedules covering his 7 March Speech, the declaration of independence on 26 March 1971, and the Proclamation of Independence issued by the Provisional Government on 10 April 1971.{{cite web |url=http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/upload/act/2020-10-14-17-08-19-Appendix.pdf |title=Appendix I |website=Laws of Bangladesh}} In 2020, the [[government of Bangladesh]] celebrated [[Mujib Year]] to mark 100 years since the birth of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1920.{{Cite web |url=https://mujib100.gov.bd/ |title=100 Years of Mujib |website=mujib100.gov.bd}} The commemorations preceded Bangladesh's 50th anniversary of independence in 2021. Mujib continues to be a revered, popular, divisive, and controversial figure in Bangladesh. His party, the Awami League, has built a personality cult around his legacy. Opponents of the League are fierce critics of Mujib's [[populism]] and authoritarianism, including his creation of BAKSAL. League supporters and other Bangladeshis credit Mujib for successfully leading the country to independence in 1971. However, Mujib's socialist and economic policies after 1971 are largely frowned upon except among his most loyal supporters and family members. Many roads, institutions, military bases, bridges and other places in Bangladesh are named in his honour. Under the Awami League's rule, Mujib's picture is printed on the national currency [[Bangladeshi taka]]. Bangladeshis across the political divide often refer to him as Bangabandhu out of respect. A [[Bangabandhu-1|satellite]] is also named after him. Mujib is remembered in India as an ally. [[Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Road]] in New Delhi and an avenue in [[Kolkata]] in the Indian state of [[West Bengal]] are named in his honour. The [[Palestinian Authority]] named a street in [[Hebron]] in honour of Mujib.{{cite news |url=https://www.newagebd.net/article/129865/palestine-city-names-street-after-mujib |title=Palestine city names street after Mujib |work=New Age}} [[Bangabandhu Boulevard]] in [[Ankara]], Turkey is named after Mujib. There is also a Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Street in [[Port Louis]], Mauritius.{{cite news |url=https://www.tbsnews.net/bangladesh/mauritius-names-street-after-bangabandhu-172885 |title=Mauritius names street after Bangabandhu |work=The Business Standard |date=17 December 2020}} Sheikh Mujib Way in Chicago in the United States is named after him.{{Cite web |url=http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/107.html |title=Bangladeshis |website=encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org}} [[Archer Blood]] described Mujib as charismatic.{{Cite book |last=Bass |first=Gary J. |author-link=Gary J. Bass |year=2013 |title=The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide |url={{GBurl|id=9PnNZTp3BQYC}} |publisher=Alfred A. Knopf |page=24 |isbn=978-0-307-70020-9}} [[Gary J. Bass]] wrote that "Mujib’s very appearance suggested raw power," cabled Blood, "a power drawn from the masses and from his own strong personality." He was tall and sturdy, with rugged features and intense eyes. Blood found him serene and confident amid the turmoil, but eager for power. "On the rostrum he is a fiery orator who can mesmerize hundreds of thousands in a pouring rain," Blood wrote. "Mujib has something of a messianic complex which has been reinforced by the heady experience of mass adulation. He talks of 'my people, my land, my forests, my rivers.' It seems clear that he views himself as the personification of Bengali aspirations." According to ''[[Time magazine|Time]]'' magazine, "A man of vitality and vehemence, Mujib became the political Gandhi of the Bengalis, symbolizing their hopes and voicing their grievances. Not even Pakistan's founder, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, drew the million-strong throngs that Mujib has attracted in Dacca. Nor, for that matter, has any subcontinent politician since Gandhi's day spent so much time behind bars for his political beliefs".{{Cite magazine |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/magazine/2008/08/04/chintito.htm |title=::: Star Weekend Magazine ::: |magazine=Star Weekend Magazine}} An Egyptian journalist noted that "Sheikh Mujibur Rahman does not belong to Bangladesh alone. He is the harbinger of freedom for all Bengalis. His Bengali nationalism is the new emergence of Bengali civilization and culture. Mujib is the hero of the Bengalis, in the past and in the times that are". [[Fidel Castro]] remarked that "I have not seen the Himalayas. But I have seen Sheikh Mujib. In personality and in courage, this man is the Himalayas. I have thus had the experience of witnessing the Himalayas". Mujib cited [[Abraham Lincoln]], [[Mao Zedong]], [[Winston Churchill]], [[John F. Kennedy]], [[Sukarno]] and [[Kemal Ataturk]], [[Mahatma Gandhi]], [[Jawaharlal Nehru]], [[Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy|Suhrawardy]], [[Subhas Chandra Bose]], and [[A. K. Fazlul Huq]] as the individuals he admires during an interview with [[David Frost]].{{sfn|Kādira|2004|p=422}} === Portrayals === === Song === * "[[Shono Ekti Mujiburer Theke]]", a 1971 song about him, was inspiration for freedom fighters during [[liberation war of Bangladesh]]. * A song was written about him in 1990 and recorded in 1991 named "[[Jodi Raat Pohale Shona Jeto]]" became popular during election. * In 2020 ''"Tumi Banglar Drubotara" (You are the star of Bengal)'', a song composed by poet [[Kamal Chowdhury]] on the occasion of [[Mujib Year]] was released. === Literature === * [[Humayun Ahmed]] included Sheikh Mujib in two of his historical novels, 2004's ''[[Jochona O Jononir Golpo]]'' and 2012's ''[[Deyal (novel)|Deyal]]''. * [[Neamat Imam]]'s novel ''[[The Black Coat]]'' depicts Mujib as a dictator.Jha, Aditya Mani. [http://www.sunday-guardian.com/bookbeat/the-black-coat-by-neamat-imam "In the famine-ravaged fields of Bangla, we are all Mujib"] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170901162037/http://www.sunday-guardian.com/bookbeat/the-black-coat-by-neamat-imam |date=1 September 2017 }}, ''[[The Sunday Guardian]]'', 15 June 2013 * In 2015, the [[Centre for Research and Information]] (CRI) department of [[Bangladesh Awami League]] published a four-part children's comic book named ''Mujib'' based on Sheikh Mujib's two autobiographies. * In March 2022, ''Muktidata Sheikh Mujib'' (Liberator Sheikh Mujib), a memoir of Mujibur Rahman, was published.{{cite news |date=14 March 2022 |title='মুক্তিদাতা শেখ মুজিব' গ্রন্থের মোড়ক উন্মোচন করলেন প্রধানমন্ত্রী {{!}} কালের কণ্ঠ |language=bn |work=Kalerkantho |url=https://www.kalerkantho.com/online/corporatecorner/2022/03/14/1129084 |access-date=14 March 2022}} === Documentaries === * In 1972, ''David Frost Program in Bangladesh'', a documentary based on interviews with Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was released. British journalist [[David Frost]] made it based on the political life of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.{{Cite web |date=2013-09-21 |title=Frost documentary - Bangabandhu |url=https://www.banglanews24.com/english/international/news/bd/7263.details |access-date=2023-10-27 |website=banglanews24.com |language=bn}} * In the 1973 Japanese Documentary ''"Bengaru no chichi: Râman" (Rahman, The Father of Bengal)'', produced by Japanese director Nagashi Oshima, depicts Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's personal life, daily activities and subsequent plans. * In 1973 ''Welcome Bangabandhu'', a documentary based on Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's state visit to Japan, was produced by Mainichi Productions of Japan.{{Cite web |title=Welcome Bangabandhu 1973 (বঙ্গবন্ধুর জাপান সফর ১৯৭৩) |url=https://www.bd.emb-japan.go.jp/itpr_en/11_000001_00592.html |website=Embassy of Japan in Bangladesh |access-date=2022-09-08}} * In 1996 ''"Chironjib Bangabandhu" (Immortal Bangabandhu)'', a documentary on the life and work of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was produced. * In the 2018 documentary film ''[[Hasina: A Daughter's Tale]]'', Sheikh Mujib's daughter [[Sheikh Hasina]] spoke about the assassination of her father.{{cite news |author1=[[Elita Karim]] |title='HASINA: A DAUGHTER'S TALE' TO PREMIERE SOON |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/news/hasina-daughters-tale-premiere-soon-1640251 |publisher=[[The Daily Star (Bangladesh)|The Daily Star]] |date=September 29, 2018}} * In 2021 ''"Bangabandhur Rajnoitik Jibon O Bangladesher Obbhudoy" (Bangabandhu's Political Life and the Rise of Bangladesh)'', a documentary on the life of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and the independence of Bangladesh, won the [[45th Bangladesh National Film Awards]] in the 'Best Documentary' category.{{cite news |date=2022-02-15|script-title=bn:জাতীয় চলচ্চিত্র পুরস্কার ২০২০ ঘোষণা করেছে সরকার|url=https://www.bssnews.net/bangla/news-flash/30740|access-date=2022-03-12|work=Bangladesh Sangbad Sangstha|language=bn|archive-date=2022-02-16|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20220216164332/https://www.bssnews.net/bangla/news-flash/30740|url-status=live}} * On 17 November 2023, ''[[The Assassin Next Door (documentary)|The Assassin Next Door]]'', an episode of Canadian documentary series [[The Fifth Estate (TV program)|The Fifth Estate]] was released on [[Noor Chowdhury]], the assassin of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.{{Cite news |date=21 November 2023 |title=The assassin next door |publisher=[[CBC News]] |url=https://www.cbc.ca/newsinteractives/features/the-assassin-next-door}} === Films === * In the 1974 Bangladeshi film ''[[Sangram (1974 film)|Sangram]]'', Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was portrayed by himself. * In the 2014 British-Bangladeshi film ''"[[Shongram]]"(Struggle)'', about [[Bangladesh Liberation War]], loosely based around key events and dates, such as Sheikh Mujibur Rahman after the [[7th March Speech of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman|war speech on the 7 March 1971]], just before his arrest, the first day of attack on the Bengali civilian population on 25 March 1971, while also explaining the atrocities that took place.{{cite news |last=Raybe|first=Tovonya|url=http://www.flavourmag.co.uk/shongram/|title=Shongram|publisher=Flavour Magazine|date=11 January 2012|access-date=1 March 2014}} * In the 2014 Indian film ''[[Children of War (2014 film)|Children of War]]'', Prodip Ganguly portrayed of Sheikh Mujib. * On 30 March 2021, ''[[Tungiparar Miya Bhai]]'', a biopic of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was released. * On 15 August 2021, ''[[August 1975 (film)|August 1975]]'', a Bangladeshi political drama film based on the immediate aftermath of [[assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman]] was released. * On 31 December 2021, ''[[Chironjeeb Mujib]]'', another biopic of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was released. * In the 2023 short film ''"Bangamata" (Mother of Bengal)'', on the life of [[Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib]], wife of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Mujib is portrayed by Monir Ahmed Shakeel.{{cite web|last=প্রতিবেদক|first=বিনোদন|date=2023-08-08|language=bn|title=মুক্তি পেল 'বঙ্গমাতা'|url=https://www.prothomalo.com/entertainment/dhallywood/r3fs0f36ho|access-date=2023-08-09|website=Prothomalo|archive-date=2023-08-09|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20230809195526/https://www.prothomalo.com/entertainment/dhallywood/r3fs0f36ho|url-status=live}} * On 29 September 2023, ''[[Dusshahoshi Khoka]]'', a film was released that depicts Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's birth to adolescence and youth (1920-1938).{{cite web |title=শুক্রবার মুক্তি পাচ্ছে 'দুঃসাহসী খোকা' |url=https://www.somoynews.tv/news/2023-09-28/JGJy3OtU |website=Somoy News |access-date=27 November 2023 |language=bn |date=28 September 2023}} * On 13 October 2023, ''[[Mujib: The Making of a Nation]]'', a biopic of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman directed by [[Shyam Benegal]] was released. === Television === * In 2007, With funding from the "Sheikh Mujib Research Center London", writer and journalist [[Abdul Gaffar Chowdhury]] made a television film of the same name based on his autobiographical political novel ''"Palashi Theke Dhanmondi"'', starring [[Pijush Bandyopadhyay]] as Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.{{cite news|url=https://www.dailyjanakantha.com/details/article/209812/%E0%A6%B8%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%B2%E0%A7%81%E0%A6%B2%E0%A7%9F%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%A1%E0%A7%87-%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%99%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%97%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%A8%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%A7%E0%A7%81/|title=সেলুলয়েডে বঙ্গবন্ধু|last=পাণ্ডে|first=গৌতম|date=2016-08-11|access-date=2020-09-18|publisher=দৈনিক জনকণ্ঠ}} === Animations === * On 28 September 2021, ''[[Khoka Theke Bangabandhu Jatir Pita]]'', an animated biopic of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was released.{{cite web |title=অ্যানিমেশন: 'খোকা থেকে বঙ্গবন্ধু জাতির পিতা' |url=https://www.kalerkantho.com/online/national/2021/03/17/1014908 |website=[[Kaler Kantho]] |access-date=28 November 2023 |language=bn |date=17 March 2021}} * On 1 October 2021, ''[[Mujib Amar Pita]]'', another animated film about Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was released.{{cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/entertainment/tv-film/news/meet-the-director-bangladeshs-first-animated-theatrical-release-mujib-amar-pita-2188951 |title=Meet the director of Bangladesh's first animated theatrical release, 'Mujib Amar Pita' |date=2 October 2021 |first=Sharmin |last=Joya |newspaper=The Daily Star}} * On 23 June 2023, ''[[Mujib Bhai]]'', another animated film about Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was released.{{Cite news |date=25 June 2023 |title=Animated film 'Mujib Bhai' premiers at Star Cineplex |publisher=[[The Business Standard]] |url=https://www.tbsnews.net/splash/animated-film-mujib-bhai-premiers-star-cineplex-655694}} * On 26 October 2023, ''[[Amader Choto Russel Shona]]'', an animated film about [[Sheikh Russel]] was released where Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was portrayed as father of Russel. ==Bibliography== [[File:Sculpture of bangabandhu at ekushe boimela 2023 2.jpg|thumb|A bust of Sheikh Mujib at the [[Ekushey Book Fair]]]] Mujib is today celebrated as a political [[diarist]]. He kept a diary during his early political career in the 1940s and 1950s. This diary was translated into English by [[Fakrul Alam]] and published as ''[[The Unfinished Memoirs]]''. The book was published in both India and [[Pakistan]] by [[Penguin Books]] and [[Oxford University Press]] respectively. The book has since been translated into French, Spanish, Korean, Arabic, and many other languages.{{Cite news |url=https://en.prothomalo.com/bangladesh/PM-unveils-Spanish-version-of-The-Unfinished |title=PM unveils Spanish version of The Unfinished Memoirs |work=Prothom Alo}}{{cite news |url=https://archive.dhakatribune.com/feature/writing/2017/03/27/unfinished-memoirs-published-french |title='The Unfinished Memoirs' published in French |work=Dhaka Tribune |date=26 March 2017}}{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/asia/news/bangabandhus-autobiography-translated-korean-2122101 |title=Bangabandhu's autobiography translated to Korean |work=The Daily Star |date=2 July 2021 }}{{Cite news |url=https://www.daily-sun.com/post/191224/Bangabandhus-unfinished-memories-now-in-Arabic |title=Bangabandhu's unfinished memories now in Arabic |work=Daily Sun}}{{cite news |title=Autobiography of Mujibur handed over to Hasina |url=http://www.gulf-times.com/site/topics/printArticle.asp?cu_no=2&item_no=513649&version=1&template_id=44&parent_id=24 |access-date=12 September 2012 |newspaper=Gulf Times |date=21 June 2012}}{{cite news |last=Ahsanuzzaman |first=Ahmed |date=20 May 2017 |title=Karagarer Rojnamcha: A Jail Diary with a Difference |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/book-reviews/karagarer-rojnamcha-jail-diary-difference-1407826 |work=The Daily Star |access-date=3 August 2017}} Mujib also started writing his autobiography while in prison between 1967 and 1969; this diary was published in Bengali as ''[[The Prison Diaries]]''. Mujib wrote a [[Travel literature|travelogue]] of his visits to China during the 1950s. This travelogue was published as the book ''The New China as I Saw''.{{cite news |url=https://www.daily-sun.com/post/458961/Cover-of-Amar-Dekha-Naya-Chin%E2%80%99-by-Bangabandhu-unveiled |title=Cover of 'Amar Dekha Naya Chin's by Bangabandhu unveiled |date=2 February 2020 |work=Daily Sun |access-date=18 December 2020}} * {{Cite book |title=The Unfinished Memoirs |publisher=The University Press Limited, Penguin Books and Oxford University Press |isbn=978-9845061100 |language=en |title-link=The Unfinished Memoirs |date=2012}} * {{cite book |title=The Prison Diaries |publisher=Bangla Academy |isbn=978-0470602645 |language=en |title-link=Karagarer Rojnamcha |date=2017}} * {{cite book |title=Amar Dekha Noya Chin |publisher=Bangla Academy |isbn=978-9840759880 |language=bn |title-link=Amar Dekha Noyachin |date=2020}} == Honours == {| class="wikitable" |+ |- ! Prize Name !! Year !! Reference |- | [[World Peace Council prizes|Joliot-Curie Medal of Peace]] || 1973 ||{{cite news |date=21 May 2020 |title=47 years of Bangabandhu's Joliot-Curie Medal Saturday |url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2020/05/21/47-years-of-bangabandhu-s-joliot-curie-medal-saturday |work=Dhaka Tribune}} |- | [[Independence Award]] || 2003 || |- | [[Gandhi Peace Prize]] || 2020 ||{{cite web |url=https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1706590 |title=Gandhi Peace Prize for the Year 2020 announced |publisher=PIB |date=22 March 2021}} |- | [[SAARC Literary Award]] || 2023 || {{Cite web |title=FOSWAL confers 'Special Literary Award' to Bangabandhu for his trilogy |url=https://thefinancialexpress.com.bd/national/foswal-confers-special-literary-award-to-bangabandhu-for-his-trilogy |website=The Financial Express |access-date=2023-03-26}} |} == Footnotes == === Notes === {{notelist}} === Citations === {{reflist|colwidth=30em}} === References === * {{cite book |title=The Unfinished Memoirs |last=Mujibur Rahman |first=Sheikh |year=2012 |location=Dhaka |publisher=The University Press Limited |isbn=9789845061100 |title-link=The Unfinished Memoirs}} * {{cite book |last=Kādira |first=Muhāmmada Nūrula |date=2004 |title=Independence of Bangladesh in 266 days: history and documentary evidence |publisher=Mukto Publishers |location=Dhaka |isbn=978-984-32-0858-3}} * {{cite book |last=Karim |first=S. A. |year=2005 |title=Sheikh Mujib: Triumph and Tragedy |publisher=The University Press Limited |isbn=9789840517374}} * {{cite book |title=Pakistan and Bangladesh: Flirting with Failure |first=William B. |last=Milam |year=2009 |isbn=978-0-231-70066-5 |publisher=Columbia University Press}} * {{cite book |last1=Kaushik |first1=S. L. |last2=Patnayak |first2=Rama |date=1995 |title=Modern Governments and Political Systems: governments and politics in South Asia}} * {{cite book |title=Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi |first=Katherine |last=Frank |author-link=Katherine Frank |date=2001 |publisher=HarperCollins |isbn=978-0-395-73097-3 |url-access=registration |url=https://archive.org/details/indiralifeofindi00fran}} * {{cite book |last=Ahmed |first=Moudud |author-link=Moudud Ahmed |year=1983 |title=Bangladesh: Era of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman |publisher=The University Press Limited |isbn=978-984-506-226-8}} * {{cite book |title=Bangladesh: Past and Present |first=Salahuddin |last=Ahmed |location=New Delhi |publisher=A.P.H. Publishing Corporation |year=2003 |isbn=9788176484695}} * {{cite book |title=Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Struggle for Independence: UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, De-classified Documents, 1962–1971 |editor=Enayetur Rahim and Joyce L. Rahim |publisher=Hakkani Publishers |year=2013 |isbn=978-7-02-140067-5}} * {{cite book |title=The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics |author=Meghna Guhathakurta and Willem van Schendel |year=2013 |publisher=Duke University Press |isbn=9780822353188}} * {{cite book |title=Limits of Islamism |last=Maidul Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2015 |isbn=9781107080263}} * {{cite book |title=Bangladesh: promise and performance |first=Rounaq |last=Jahan |isbn=9781856498258 |publisher=Zed Books |year=2000}} * {{Cite book |title=Bangladesh, in Blood and Tears |last=Gupta |first=Jyoti Sen |year=1981 |publisher=Naya Prokash}} * {{cite book |last1=Heitzman |first1=James |last2=Library of Congress |first2=Federal Research Division |last3=Nyrop |first3=Richard F. |last4=Worden |first4=Robert L. |title=Bangladesh : a country study |date=1989 |publisher=Library of Congress |location=Washington, D.C |url=https://www.loc.gov/item/89600298/}} == External links == {{Sister project links|auto=1|d=1}} * {{URL|http://bangabandhu.net/|Bangabandhu Online Museum}} * {{URL|www.mujibnagar.com/bangladesh-history/6-bongobondhu-sheik-mujibur-rahaman-in-1971-1975|Sheikh Mujib (1971–1975)}} * {{Banglapedia|Rahman,_Bangabandhu_Sheikh_Mujibur}} * {{IMDb name|id=nm0706730|name=Sheikh Mujib}} * {{Internet Archive short film|id=gov.archives.arc.652014|name=Interview with Bangladesh Prime Minister Mujbur Rahman'' (1972)''}} * {{NPG name|id=166530}} {{s-start}} {{s-off}} {{s-bef|before=Unknown}} {{s-ttl|title=[[East Bengal|Agriculture Minister of East Bengal]]|years=1954}} {{s-vac|parameter=extinct}} {{s-break}} {{s-bef|before=Unknown}} {{s-ttl|title=[[East Pakistan|Industries Minister of East Pakistan]]|years=1956–1957}} {{s-aft|after=Unknown}} {{s-break}} {{s-new|office}} {{s-ttl|title=[[President of Bangladesh]]|years=1971–1972}} {{s-aft|after=[[Syed Nazrul Islam|Nazrul Islam]]
Acting}} {{s-break}} {{s-bef|before=[[Tajuddin Ahmed]]}} {{s-ttl|title=[[Prime Minister of Bangladesh]]|years=1972–1975}} {{s-aft|after=[[Muhammad Mansur Ali]]}} {{s-break}} {{s-bef|before=[[Mohammad Mohammadullah]]}} {{s-ttl|title=[[President of Bangladesh]]|years=1975}} {{s-aft|after={{nowrap|[[Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad]]}}}} {{s-end}} {{Sheikh Mujibur Rahman}} {{Sheikh Hasina}} {{Navboxes |title= Articles related to Sheikh Mujibur Rahman |list1= {{Symbols of Bangladesh}} {{Bangladesh liberation}} {{BangladeshPresidents}} {{BangladeshPrimeMinisters}} {{Bangladesh Awami League}} {{Presidents of Awami League}} }} {{Portal bar|Biography|Politics|Bangladesh|Pakistan|India|British Empire}} {{Authority control}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Mujibur Rahman, Sheikh}} [[Category:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman| ]] [[Category:1920 births]] [[Category:1975 deaths]] [[Category:Prime Ministers of Bangladesh]] [[Category:1st Jatiya Sangsad members]] [[Category:Assassinated Bangladeshi politicians]] [[Category:Awami League politicians]] [[Category:General Secretaries of Awami League]] [[Category:Presidents of the Awami League]] [[Category:Bengali independence activists]] [[Category:Bengali Muslims]] [[Category:Burials at Banani Graveyard]] [[Category:Pakistan Movement activists from Bengal]] [[Category:Pakistani MNAs 1955–1958]] [[Category:People from Gopalganj District, Bangladesh]] [[Category:People from British India]] [[Category:People murdered in Bangladesh]] [[Category:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman family]] [[Category:Presidents of Bangladesh]] [[Category:Recipients of the Independence Day Award]] [[Category:Maulana Azad College alumni]] [[Category:University of Dhaka alumni]] [[Category:Deaths by firearm in Bangladesh]] [[Category:20th-century Bengalis]] [[Category:20th-century Muslims]] [[Category:Muslim socialists]] [[Category:Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League executive committee members]] [[Category:Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League central committee members]] [[Category:1975 murders in Bangladesh]] [[Category:1970s assassinated politicians in Asia]] [[Category:Bangladeshi people of Arab descent]] [[Category:Assassinated presidents in Asia]] [[Category:Assassinated leaders of political parties]] [[Category:20th-century assassinated Bangladeshi politicians]] [[Category:Assassinated politicians in 1975]] [[Category:Bangladeshi revolutionaries]]
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